THE title given to this paper, chosen after much hesitation and with no little reluctance, is not to be looked upon as an assumption of the definite and final solution of the principal problem to which attention has been directed. As a matter of fact I have hoped to conceal, for at least a page or two, the identity of this principal problem, in order that no well intentioned and good natured reader might be driven away by what is a very general, not altogether reasonable, but quite natural, prejudice.
Increase of European Population during last Century.
Special Position of British Empire.
Europe and Foreign Food Supplies.
New Population and New Markets.
Decline in Rate of Growth of Population.
SIR ROBERT GIFFEN,
I TRUST you will excuse me, on an occasion like the present, for returning to a topic which I have discussed more than once—the utility of common statistics. While we are indebted for much of our statistical knowledge to elaborate special inquiries, such as were made by Mr. Jevons on prices and the currency, or have lately been made by Mr. Booth into the condition of the London poor, we are indebted for other knowledge to continuous official and unofficial records, which keep us posted up to date as to certain facts of current life and business, without which public men and men of business, in the daily concerns of life, would be very much at a loss.
THE AIMS OF THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
CAPITAL EXPENDITURE ON THE REICHSANSTALT.
R. T. GLAZEBROOK,
A SPEAKER who is privileged to deliver an experimental lecture from this place is usually able to announce some brilliant discovery of his own, or at least to illustrate his words by some striking experiment. To-night it is not in my power to do this, and I am thereby at a disadvantage.
A MODERN street consists of a concrete foundation which extends from curb to curb, upon which is laid a wearing surface of asphalt, brick or other material. The use of these concretes has an instructive history, which might be profitably preceded by a discussion of the uses of mortars and cements in antiquity, did space permit.
THE INFLUENCE OF RAINFALL ON COMMERCE AND POLITICS.
H. HELM CLAYTON,
THE causes which control human life and human actions are complex and difficult to grasp; yet, to act reasonably and to progress, man must somehow unravel the tangle of causes and assign to each its true value. Perhaps, in no department of life are the causes assigned for certain results more varied than in politics.
IN the essay on Dante, Macaulay reproached the English poets with the tendency then showing itself among them to consider the objects and phases of external nature fit material for the exercise of their art. The reproach arose in part out of the fancied antagonism between poetry and science, and it has been often echoed since that day by poets as well as critics.
THE relation of the vegetal organism to its environment has demanded a much more generalized type of sensory action than that of the animal. Thus but few species of plants have developed special perceptive organs. The sensory functions are exercised by extended regions of the body yet the delicacy of appreciation of differences in the intensities of external forces is not surpassed by that of the animal.
TO the present generation, that is to say, the people a few years on the hither and thither side of thirty, the name of Charles Darwin stands alongside of those of Isaac Newton and Michael Faraday ; and, like them, calls up the grand ideal of a searcher after truth and interpreter of Nature.
REVIEW OF DARWIN'S THEORY ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION.
We are thus, at last, brought to the question; what would happen if the derivation of species were to be substantiated, either as a true physical theory, or as a sufficient hypothesis? What would come of it? The enquiry is a pertinent one, just now.
THE Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture has taken rank as one of the important annuals of this country, and in point of circulation is hardly equaled. This is due to the munificence of the Federal Government in appropriating $300,000 annually for its publication, in an edition of half a million copies, and to the care which is given by the Department of Agriculture to the preparation of timely and interesting articles and appropriate illustrations.
NOTES FROM THE BERLIN MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL CONGRESS.
THE EFFECT OF SECULAR COOLING AND METEORIC DUST ON THE LENGTH OF THE DAY.
ENGLAND’S CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.
PROFESSOR RUDOLF VIRCHOW
THE eightieth birthday of one of the leaders of modern civilization has been celebrated with imposing ceremonies at Berlin. Virchow is the founder of the science of pathology, and his services for anthropology have been nearly as great. He has not only demonstrated that the scientific research of the laboratory may be directly beneficial to mankind, but he has himself applied his own discoveries for the welfare of Berlin and of the German army, whence they have extended to the whole world.