THE discoveries which have been made during the past twenty-five years with reference to the etiology of infectious diseases constitute the greatest achievement of scientific medicine and afford a substantial basis for the application of intelligent measures of prophylaxis.
THE fact that a very extensive and massive ice sheet covered countries of the northern hemisphere which now enjoy a mild climate is generally known and accepted, although it is little more than fifty years since Agassiz (1840-47) made the then novel suggestion to explain the occurrence of glacial deposits where no glaciers remain.
SINCE the days when the first European navigators entered the South Sea, the dispute over the source and ethnic affiliations of the inhabitants of that extended and scattered island world has been unsettled. The most superficial glance points out a contrariety in external appearances, which leaves little doubt that here peoples of entirely different blood live near and among one another.
IN a large proportion of cases no reference is made by the national biographers to the diseases from which their subjects suffered, nor to the general state of health. This, however, we could scarcely expect to find, except in those cases in which the state of health had an obvious influence on the life and work of the eminent person.
A GOOD test of the intelligence of any animal is its ability to learn to do a thing by being shown it or by being put through the requisite movements. Human adults would learn readily in either of these ways, because we thus get ideas of what to do and how to do it and modify our actions in accordance with these ideas.
THERE are surgeons living to-day who remember the fascination and horrors of necessary operations, when speed was as great a requisite as skill to shorten the mortal agony, and when a famous surgeon would remove a limb in eleven minutes. There are many who remember how slowly the boon of chloroform worked its way against prejudice.
THE EVIDENCE OF SNAILS ON CHANGES OF LAND AND SEA.
1. DART APPARATUS OF EPIPHRAGMOPHORA MORMONUM, A CALIFORNIAN SNAIL. 2. THE DART, ENLARGED. 3. DO. OF CHLORÆA BENGUETENSIS, PHILLIPPINES. THE POSITION OF THE DART IN ITS SACK IS SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES.
HENRY A. PILSBRY
IF we wish to learn the history of any land area, we turn to its geology for a record of changes in the past. The time of its emergence from ocean, the age of its mountains and the details of its growth by successive increments of land elevated from the sea, all this we may expect to learn with reasonable accuracy, besides gaining a knowledge of the plants and animals which lived from time to time upon the coasts.
METEOROLOGY became established on an independent basis about fifty years ago. With the beginning of a systematic study of the atmospheric conditions there arose a demand for more frequent observations than could be made directly, and, as a result, self-registering meteorological instruments came into use.
THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.
A NATIONAL association for the advancement of science occupies at the beginning of the twentieth century a dominant position. The greatest achievement of the nineteenth century was the progress of science; its most definite tendency was towards the voluntary organization of individuals for the accomplishment of certain ends.
DR. H. CARRINGTON BOLTON is one of the few Americans acquainted with the history of science, and his little volume on the evolution of the thermometer (The Chemical Publishing Company) represents a type of publication too rare in this country.
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY AND PRESIDENT REMSEN.
ACADEMIC FREEDOM HERE AND ABROAD.
SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL ENDOWMENTS.
THE CAUSES OF YELLOW FEVER AND OF CANCER.
THE BRITISH ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION.
THE election of Professor Ira Remsen to the presidency of the Johns Hopkins University has been received with general approval, and will be particularly gratifying to those who have been connected with the University as students or teachers and to men of science throughout the country.