IT was a glorious summer day. The sunlight gleamed through the trees, which covered the mountain-top. Checkers of light and shade wove themselves upon the fern-clad soil. Seated upon the trunk of a fallen tree the man whose name to-day is borne by scores of institutions, which his more than princely benevolence has founded, talked to a friend in relation to his plans for the great city, the history of the growth of which is closely linked with the story of his own wonderful career.
THE AURORA AUSTRALIS, AS OBSERVED FROM THE 'BELGICA.'
TABLE OF AURORAS OBSERVED ON BOARD THE 'BELGICA' DURING THE WINTER OF 1898.
DR. FREDERICK A. COOK.
N the literature of the still unknown phenomena of polar auroras, deductions have been based almost entirely upon observations of the aurora borealis. So little has been known of the south pole and of its terrestrial and celestial surroundings that the aurora australis has been omitted in the upbuilding of auroral science.
PROGRESS AND TENDENCY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.*
ROBERT H. THURSTON
THE progress and tendency of mechanical engineering in the nine teenth century comprehends the progress and the tendency of almost all that has distinguished the nineteenth century from all the centuries of time, historic and prehistoric, that have preceded.
THE importance of language as an instrument of anthropological en-L quiry has been the subject of much difference of opinion. On the one hand, there are those who believe that the relation between language and thought is so close that the former has always been an almost exact mirror of the latter, and that every increase in intellectual development has been accompanied by, if not conditioned by, a corresponding increase in the development of language.
IF we consider the time of birth of our group of British persons of preeminent ability we find that April shows the largest number of births and January the fewest number. In passing from January to February there is a marked and sudden rise, so that when we consider the total births, according to the quarter of the year, the first, second and fourth quarters are fairly equal, but there is a decided deficiency in the third quarter.
IN the life of a common frog or toad we seem to find none of that altruistic solicitude for the welfare of the helpless younger members of society, that we so fondly attribute as guide in many of our own actions. In clamorous spring reunions these cold-blooded creatures deposit their eggs in the water and go their way in search of food—not knowing whether some or many of the eggs will run a normal course through tadpole or pollywog states to tailless adults, or fall a prey to hungry ducks, or more insatiable naturalists in search of ‘material’ for study.
EVERY year a mass of original work in physiology, covering from ten to fifteen thousand pages, for the most part of formidable size and closeness of print, is collected in the various special journals of the science, or mingled with kindred, though miscellaneous, dust in the transactions of learned societies, or decently buried at the public expense in government bulletins and official reports.
I. In this paper I shall set forth two propositions, the one selfevident, the other not apparent at first sight, but equally demonstrable. The blood of a nation determines its history. This is the first proposition. The second is: The history of a nation determines its blood.
THANKS to such writers as Spencer, Stephen and Sutherland, we have been long familiar with ethics treated from a scientific standpoint. Yet the science of ethics, as pursued by these thinkers, betrayed one evident defect— it proceeded by analogy from the physical sciences.
THERE appears to be no abatement In expeditions for polar discovery and adventure. Lieutenant Peary remains in the far north, seeking to reach a point nearer to the Pole than did Dr. Nansen and the Duke of Abruzzi’s party, while with the same object in view Mr. Baldwin is preparing an expedition, liberally equipped by Mr. Ziegler, of New York City, and Captain Bernier is making efforts to secure a similar outfit in Canada.