INTRODUCTION.—From the days of early discovery, adventurers and explorers have repeatedly sought for accessible routes across Central America. For more than half a century engineers have ransacked the dense mountain forests for easy passes through which to connect the two great oceans by water or by rail.
IT is remarkable, in view of the universal desire of mankind to obtain money, that so few persons, comparatively, really know anything about the early history of money, or the social and industrial conditions which led, long ago, to the substitution of pieces of coined money for direct barter—in short, when, where, and how the art of coining and use of metallic money originated.
THE NATIONALIZATION OF THE RAILROADS IN SWITZERLAND.
M. HORACE MICHELE
ON the 20th of February, 1898, the Swiss people accepted by an overwhelming majority a law referred to them providing for the purchase and operation by the state of the railroads of the country. The vote marks the end in Switzerland of the system of private management of railroads, and the coming in of a new system of state management.
FROM the simplest plant to the heart and brain of the world’s chief denizen the organic kingdoms are the prey of a myriad parasites. These are outsiders and insiders, living in or upon the skin of their host, or burying themselves in its cavities and tissues, bones and vital organs.
“I THINK that, whatever difficulties they may have to surmount, and whatever tribulations they may have to pass through, the Americans may reasonably look forward to a time when they will have produced a civilization grander than any the world has known.”
IN looking at the actual and possible results of manual training, I come to one of the most attractive aspects of my subject. I find these results, in the main, to be very favorable, but I should be unwilling to use this as an argument for manual training unless it could be shown at the same time that there was an organic relation between these results and the underlying principles.
IT seems an incontrovertible fact in natural history that there is not a single character which has been used to distinguish any group of considerable extent from which some one or more of the members thereof may not depart. In that great division of the animal kingdom characterized by the possession of articulated limbs, many species are met which are entirely wanting in those organs, and, similarly, the secondary division of the Annulosa, marked by the presence of wings in the final state—the Ptilota of Aristotle—contains species that, throughout life, never acquire instruments of flight.
NOTHING illustrates more vividly the change which has taken place during the present century in the attitude of naturalists toward the objects of their study than the colors of plants and animals. To the dried-specimen systematist of a hundred years ago color was an immutable factor in Nature.
WE possess now more precise and more scientific data concerning megalithic monuments than those which we had before they were studied and explored methodically. We know that the dolmens, whether still covered with a tumulus or stripped of the envelope of stone or earth which formerly covered them, are simply sepulchral caverns, that they were built in the polished stone age, and that that mode of burial was abandoned at the beginning of the bronze age.
IT is only after many years of earnest work on the part of comparatively few that it is beginning to be understood that domestic science is something definite, reducible to forms, capable of being studied comprehensively, and worthy of a place beside the other sciences in the curriculum of important universities and colleges.
IN the rush and whirl toward the end of a century so fertile in discoveries and inventions; when, day by day, we are coming to accept the most marvelous announcements of science and new creations for comfort, for safety, or pleasure with lessening enthusiasm, as if they were only an anticipated right—at such time, when, enjoying so much, the world is already looking forward in reveling wonder to the “ Century of Electricity,” it were well to single out and assign to their merited place those who have most contributed to make this progress possible.
DEAR SIR: In reading over your June magazine this morning I came upon your very able essay on Competition and the Golden Rule. I am very much impressed with its general fairness as well as its penetration, but particularly with the opening paragraph on those advocates of socialism who teach that competition is a negation of the golden rule.
WE print in our correspondence column a courteous letter from Mr. David J. Lewis, of Cumberland, Md., who writes to say that, though a socialist, he approves of the position taken in our recent article on Competition and the Golden Rule, and that modern socialism, by which he understands the replacing of privately owned by publicly owned capital in the production of wealth, does not involve the cessation of competition.
M. Louis PROAL’S Political Crime,* the best volume of the Criminology Series, is a needful contribution to the study of sociology. Few people have any adequate conception of the amount of crime connected with politics. Still fewer appreciate the far reaching and deplorable consequences of that crime.
International Language Study.—An interesting and comparatively new scheme for the study of foreign languages is described by E. H. Magill, ex-president of Swarthmore College, in a recent issue of The Kindergarten Magazine. “How these foreign languages can best be taught in our schools and colleges is a question which has received much attention at the hands of experienced educators of this generation.”