THE past year was one of unusual disturbance in England, in the relations of labor and capital, and the chief of these industrial conflicts possessed a significance never anywhere surpassed. The lockout of the engineers—we call them machinists in this country—marks the new alignment of organized labor and organized capital—what may be called the secondary stage of the labor question—more sharply, more tensely, than ever before.
EVER since the electric light and power industry began to be a factor in the economic affairs of the industrial world, its adaptation to the work of transmitting the power of waterfalls to more or less distant points has been the dream of those who realize its vast possibilities, and who believe that the ingenuity of man is equal to the task of overcoming any difficulties that may be encountered in attempts to find a successful solution of the problem.
IF we were asked to name in what particular Italy stands to-day quite head and shoulders above her fellows, we should unhesi-tatingly say in the science of criminal anthropology. This is an essentially Italian study, whose origin we discover as early as 1320, when the King of the Two Sicilies decreed that no one should be permitted to practice medicine who had not studied anatomy for at least one year.
A YEAR of abnormal conditions in trade and industry brings out a plentiful crop of predictions of great approaching changes. If the prophets of economic revolution, who base their prophecies upon half-digested statistics, were to be gathered, and their confident prognostications exhibited in the light of ascertained results, or even of rationally tested tendencies, the asylum of Laputa, as described by Swift, would be of secondary interest.
WITHOUT indulging in too familiar details of an ocean voyage, let me briefly sketch some interesting features of my visit to Nassau in the month of March, for the island of New Providence is unique and interesting on account of its wonderful flowers and trees as well as the curious customs of its picturesque natives.
IT is easy to understand how natural selection may modify organisms for the good of the species, even at the expense of the individuals which, in each generation, make up the species; but it is difficult to understand how this can be brought about by nurture, for, so far as the direct action of the conditions of life is concerned, the species is identical with the sum of the individuals which now exist.
THE above designation has been popularly given to one of the most important questions that has ever come before the legal tribunals of this country, and the record of which has been heretofore so difficult of access that it has not attracted the attention it merits, but which it is to be hoped will prove at no distant period a subject of popular interest and future judicial consideration.
IN the present paper it is not my purpose to discuss the evidence in favor of evolution or the arguments which may be urged against it. This has been done quite thoroughly in our previous meetings at Paris and Brussels. I shall assume evolution as proved, or rather, that it is the only working theory which is competent to meet the demands of modern science.
IN his studies of the relative frequency of the different elements composing the crust of the earth, Mr. F. W. Clarke supposes that to a depth of ten miles below the level of the sea the composition of the ground is the same as is given by the examination of the surface strata and the depths which we have reached.
NONE of the works on linguistics which come out one after another, whether for the use of students or of the general public, seem to me to offer exactly what they ought. To one who knows how to question it, language is full of lessons, because man has laid up in it for many centuries the acquisitions of his material and moral life.
CARL SEMPER is characterized by Dr. August Schuberg * as a student who, while being especially thorough in a particular line of research and generally preferring it, was remarkably free from that kind of specialism which is so common and often detrimental to science as a whole.
UPON another page of the present number will be found an interesting article by an eminent Catholic theologian, the Rev. J. A. Zahm, C. S. C., under the title of Evolution and Teleology. The point of view which the writer takes up is not one that we can share; but he states his case with candor and ability, and we hold that views so stated are entitled to expression in a periodical which stands, and has always stood, for the freest discussion of all scientific and philosophical questions.
IN no way can one appreciate more clearly the remarkable advance in ethnographic studies than by comparing the great work of Professor Ratzel * on The History of Mankind with the early works of Pritchard and Wood. The illustrated work of the Rev. J. G-. Wood on the Natural History of Man represented the state of our knowledge on the subject at the time it was compiled, in a popular way to be sure, but nevertheless the reader had presented to him in a graphic way a light sketch of the habits, manners, and customs of the various peoples of the world.
THE important question of memory and its cultivation is the subject of the last volume in the International Scientific Series to reach us.* What memory is, its place and importance in the economy of the human mind, its divisions and special functions, and, finally, methods for its cultivation, is the ground covered by Mr. Green’s book.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins and Reports. New Hampshire College, Darham: No. 47. Strawberries. By F. W. Rane. Pp. 24.— New Jersey : No. 126. Small Fruits. By Alva T. Jordan. Pp. 32; Bovine Abortion, Milk Fever, and Garget By Julius Nelson.
The Origin of Coral Island Forms.— This much-discussed question has been raised again by the boring operation of Professors Sollas and David at the island of Funifuti. Their results, as far as they have been announced, seem to confirm Darwin’s theory of subsidence.
As the result of some recently conducted experiments on feeding hogs, it is announced by the Cornell University experiment station that fully twenty-five per cent of the diseases which are supposed by the farmer to be hog cholera, or some other of the infectious diseases which attack hogs, are simply due to unhealthy food or foul surroundings.
THE Report of the New York or American Section of the Society of Chemical Industry for 1896-’97, Dr. H. Schneitzer, New York, local secretary, speaks of the continued growth and prosperity which the section, as well as the society at large, enjoyed during the year.
ARTICLES MARKED WITH AN ASTERISK ARE ILLUSTRATED. PAGE Age of Trees, The. (Frag.)......................................... 717 American Evolutionist, An Early. C. M. Blackford, Jr.*............ 224 American People, Are they Civilized ?