THE mind, in the sense in which I shall here use the word, is the collective function of the sensorium or brain of man and animals. It is the sum total of all psychic changes, actions, and reactions. Under the head of psychic functions are included all operations of the nervous system, as well as operations of like nature which take place in creatures without specialized nerve fibers or nerve cells.
IN cities where Nature study has been introduced, it has become evident that the required number of plants suitable for the purpose of instruction in the elements of botany is obtained often with considerable difficulty. A school in the suburbs, with woods and fields near, and a free range for its pupils, in a few years finds the open places occupied with houses and notices to trespassers, and the sources of material for observation work cut off.
HISTORICAL.—The movement in favor of Government forest reserves in the United States began soon after it became apparent that unless some restriction was placed upon the wasteful cutting and destruction of the forests of the continent the timber supply would soon be exhausted.
HAS the intricate racial composition of the population of Europe, which we have been at so much pains to analyze, any significance for the student of social problems? Is there any reason why those who would rightly interpret sociological phenomena should first thoroughly acquaint themselves with the nature of the human stuff of which populations are compounded?
CENTURY of enlightenment—century of science—century of reconciliation—as such respectively may be characterized the eighteenth, the nineteenth, and the twentieth centuries; though in so characterizing the last we have somewhat forestalled time.
THE following letter, published in the Athenæum for August 5, 1893, was drawn from me in response to certain passages in the Romanes Lecture, delivered by the late Prof. Huxley at Oxford in the Spring of 1893. These passages were supposed to be directed against doctrines I hold (see Athenæum, July 22, 1893); and it seemed needful that I should defend myself against an attack coming from one whose authority was so great.
ONE of the greatest obstacles in the way of framing a correct system of general taxation, is the different and wholly antagonistic opinions that popularly prevail, as to the real nature of what constitutes its chief objective in respect to administrative action, namely, “property.”
IN our last paper we described the feet of some of the chief groups of four-footed animals. We saw that in most of these animals the four feet are very much alike, because they all have the same kind of work to do—that is, walking or running. But when, in consequence of its manner of life, an animal comes to use its fore feet differently from its hind feet, as the kangaroo does, we find that a difference arises in the structure of the two.
LIKE man, animals, especially those of the higher orders, are born with a latent, inherited education, the effects of which are manifested in the course of individual development. Our organs, for instance, which have been slowly built up during the evolution of the various specific types, act of themselves, each in its own way.
WITH the close of this century the "woman question," as such, will have practically settled itself in the United States, to the immense relief of a great number of people. In its wake have followed “child study,” of special interest to kindergartners and mothers’ clubs; paidology, the new science of the child, claiming the attention of college men and demanding a college chair; and oikology, a new name for the science of housekeeping or household economics.
A "NEW YORK GEOLOGIST," whose name is not given, is quoted as having attributed Mr. Walcott's success largely to his having persistently followed one track. Acquiring a taste for geology when very young, it eventually became dominant, and more and more manifest to the world about him, till he secured a position in the United States Geological Survey.
AN ingenious but somewhat paradoxical writer of the present day has lately said that, “were we all agreed as to the training of our children, we need not await the slow evolution of the social millennium; it would be achievable in the very next generation.”
IN its multiplicity of anecdotes this study of sleep resembles the early works of Ribot, and the author chats about each in an equally charming and irresponsible fashion. She is not chary, however, of generalizations, and a very limited number of examples suffices for wide inductions.
IN Hallucinations and Illusions the fallacies of perception are studied by Mr. Parish in the light of the data furnished by the International Census of Waking Hallucinations of the Sane. While examining the books on the general subject the author found that, as a rule, only single aspects of it were treated, such as fallacies of perception occurring under morbid conditions or in dreams, while little or no attention was given to the waking hallucinations of healthy persons; in fact, very few data had been collected to furnish the basis for an inquiry into this aspect.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins. Cornell University: No. 139. Japanese Plums. By L. H. Bailey. Pp. 16; No. 140. Potato Culture. By I. P. Roberts and L A. Clinton. Pp. 24; No. 141. Powdered Soap as a Cause of Death among Swill-fed Hogs.
School Baths and Workmen’s Baths in Germany.—From a long paper on the Public Baths of Europe by Dr. E. M. Hartwell, we take the following; The first public school bath in Germany was placed in a common school in Göttingen in 1883, the mayor of that city being prompted to utilize two basement rooms for the purpose through the suggestion of a professor of hygiene that the provision of well-ventilated schoolrooms was likely to be futile if they were occupied by dirty children.
Institute of France, Cuvier Prize.—At the session of the Académie des Sciences held at Paris, December 13,1897, the Cuvier Prize of 1,500 francs was awarded to Professor O. C. Marsh, of Yale University. This prize is “awarded every three years for the most remarkable work either on the Animal Kingdom or on Geology.”
ONE will be impressed with the importance of good roads, Mr. John Gifford reports to the Geological Survey of New Jersey, by a visit to the forest region of Germany, where forest exploitation and road construction go hand in hand, so that inaccessible forest regions become profitable solely through the construction of excellent roads.