THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY.
XI.—THE BRITISH ISLES.
WILLIAM Z. RIPLEY,
THE ethnic history of the British Isles turns upon two significant geographical facts, which have rendered their populations decidedly unique among the other states of western Europe.* The first of these is their insular position, midway off the coast between the north and south of the continent.
THIS always interesting question has lately been revived in a startling manner by discoveries that have seemed to reach almost deep enough to touch its solution. The following sentences, fresh from the pen of Dr. T. J. J. See, of the Lowell Observatory, are very significant from the point of view of our inquiry:
A NEW and wonderful field in the realm of photography has lately been opened up to the world—a field whose extent, variety, and richness are as yet scarcely realized, though its assiduous cultivation by inventive minds has already afforded a harvest of interesting results.
PROFESSOR OSTHOFF, of the University of Heidelberg, has said that phonetic laws are blind and operate with a blind necessity. If, instead of this, he had said that these laws are constant so long as they are the effect of our habits, and that our habits, where nothing contradicts them, are manifested uniformly and regularly, he would have uttered an incontestable truth.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN “REAL” AND “PERSONAL” PROPERTY ARTIFICIAL AND NOT NATURAL.—As a further help to the understanding of the subject, it is important to here call attention to the circumstance that the distinction between real and personal property is, to a very great extent, an artificial and not a natural one, and that there is not only no common or accepted rule for their definition and distinction, but, on the contrary, a great diversity of statute enactment by the different States of the Federal Union and by foreign governments on the subject.
TO my right, to my left, overhead, everywhere, gulls, gulls, gulls! Big gray fellows standing on the wharf edge; white chaps, with black heads, flapping their long, black-tipped wings and making noises that could be likened only to creaky wheelbarrows! Such was my experience one day as I walked out on the pier at San Diego, California, to take the ferryboat across the bay to the charming Coronado peninsula.
OUR LIQUOR LAWS AS SEEN BY THE COMMITTEE OF FIFTY.
FREDERIK A. FERNALD
IN 1893 a group of fifteen gentlemen who had been conducting various sociological studies together formed, by adding to their number, the Committee of Fifty to investigate the liquor problem. Subcommittees on the physiological, the legislative, the economic, and the ethical aspects of the problem were appointed in the autumn of that year.
AS a general rule, the influence of the theory of evolution as a potent factor in the biological sciences is considered to date from the publication of the Origin of Species in November, 1859. It is true that the theory did not originate with Mr. Darwin.
EXCURSIONS OF THE RECENT INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS.
PROF. DANIEL S. MARTIN.
THE recent meeting of the International Congress of Geologists at St. Petersburg has led incidentally to an important series of publications regarding the geological features of a large portion of European Russia, the Urals, and the Caucasus.
MAN occupies in view of death a situation that is peculiar, for he is probably the only being that knows he has to die. The battle against death spurs an immense number of men to study and work; and all the great intellectual and moral creations in art, religion, and science have been produced under the influence of the feelings excited by the certainty of that event.
DR. WALTER JAMES HOFFMAN, in his paper upon Popular Superstitions, which appeared in the Popular Science Monthly for November, 1896, speaks of the ominous meaning attached to the spilling of salt at table. He traces the origin of this widespread belief to our Lord’s Supper and consequent events.
IN an article published a few months ago in the Revue Scientifique I pointed out a danger that threatens some of our chemical industries. I showed on the evidence of official documents that these very industries have taken a rapid start and had an immense development in Germany, while they have continued nearly stationary in France, the country of their origin.
SCIENTIFIC ideas are subject to tbe same general law of evolution which we have expounded as to other ideas in a previous paper (The Work of Ideas in Human Evolution, Popular Science Monthly, vol. xlviii, August, 1895); but being less lasting than other ideas, the study of them is easier.
SIR JOSEPH PRESTWICH was, at the time of his death, the oldest of British geologists. While his scientific honors were numerous, the formal recognition by his Government of the value of his work, much of which had redounded greatly to the material advantage of England was tardy.
AS the nineteenth century draws to its close there is no slackening in that onward march of scientific discovery and invention which has been its chief characteristic. Far from it, discovery and invention seem to be proceeding with ever-increasing rapidity; it is as if a fountain had been opened which, far from showing signs of exhaustion with lapse of time, gained in volume and force from year to year.
THE collected edition of Mr. Kipling’s prose and verse* published by the Messrs. Scribner presents the successful execution of a singularly felicitous idea. The Soldiers Three stories, which first made known the appearance of a new genius, were scattered in various legitimate and pirated editions like the tales of social and of native life in India.
To the American Lectures on the History of Religions, given under the direction of an association representing a number of co-operating institutions and local boards, Dr. Daniel G. Brinton has contributed a course on Religions of Primitive Peoples,* which were delivered during the winter of 1896-’97 at Boston, Brooklyn, Ithaca, New Haven, New York, Philadelphia, and Providence.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins and Reports. Cornell University: Agricultural Extension Work: Sketch of its Origin and Progress. Pp. 12.—New Jersey: No. 123. Milk. Pp. 19.—North Dakota. Climate and Crop Service, August, 1897.
Unselfish Science.—One of the happiest features of the opening session of the American Association at Detroit was the welcoming address of ex-Senator Thomas W. Palmer. Amid the general scramble for money power which characterizes the present age, he said, “it is gratifying to know that there is an increasing number of men and women who, ignoring the common objects of ambition, have devoted themselves to and are diligent in the unselfish pursuit of truth.”
IN his sectional address on the Labor Question before the British Association, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner drew a parallel between the present age and the Renaissance. Analogies between the present period and that of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries offer themselves in different ways.
MR. VERNON HARCOURT has retired from the general secretaryship of the British Association, which he has held for fourteen years; and Prof. Roberts Austen, who has for some time assisted in the work, has been chosen to succeed him. M. B. RENAULT, a French investigator, has long been working at the identification of fossil bacteria.