TAXATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY.—Great, however, as may be the inequalities in the valuation and assessment of real property, those which obtain in respect to personal are so much greater as to almost preclude the idea of comparison. In the incipient stages of society, when property consisted almost or quite exclusively of things tangible and visible—lands, buildings, slaves, horses, cattle, ships, household effects, and implements— when railroad shares, bonds and mortgages, certificates of deposit, and all the multifarious forms of credits and evidences of debt, by which we are enabled to-day to secure interests in land or in visible, tangible personal property in the possession of others, were absolutely unknown,* and when the rate of taxation was comparatively small, the theory under consideration was not impracticable in its application, and, under most circumstances, afforded but little opportunity for the working of injustice in respect to arbitrary discriminations in assessing.
SOME years ago Dr. Paul von Ritter gave to the University of Jena a considerable fund for the endowment of research in the direction of the doctrine of evolution, and more especially for promoting the scientific exploration of Australia. The complete geographical or physical isolation of this vast island since the Tertiary period has prevented it from keeping pace with other portions of the globe in the development of animal life, and it has therefore been very aptly termed "the land of living fossils and of missing links,” on account of the peculiarly primitive character of its fauna.
THE meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Toronto in August last, was an occasion of peculiar interest in many ways. The first visit of the association to America, thirteen years ago—the Montreal meeting of 1884— proved so successful and interesting that the invitation from Toronto, urgently pressed upon the body two years since, found a ready response, and has resulted in this important gathering.
THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY.
WILLIAM Z. RIPLEY
GERMANIA! A word entirely foreign to the Teutonic speech of northern Europe. Deutschland then, the country of the Deutsch—not Dutch, for they are really Netherlanders. What do these words mean? What territories, what peoples do they comprehend?
MY setter comes out of the underwoods, after one of his incursive rambles, garnished with strings of green “stickers” and with harsh, brown burs clinging tenaciously to the long, feathery hairs of his tail and about his legs and ears. I have kept in the narrow path to avoid these pests of the autumn woods only to find that they have laid fast hold upon my clothes when by some unwitting step I brushed against the border tangle.
THE intelligent public, fickle and uncertain as it is, has apparently not entirely withdrawn its interest from one of the most important and suggestive of modern diplomatic entanglements, the Bering-Sea controversy. Although thought to have been finally settled by arbitration in 1893, the Paris award seems to constitute only the beginning of a new phase of the subject.
WE may divide the makers of perfumes into the two classes of those who furnish the raw materials for perfumery and the manufacturers proper. The former provide the essences, the pure or concentrated scents, and the latter mix and extend them, incorporate them into various liquids or pastes, and offer them for consumption.
ONCE more has the Dominion of Canada invited the British Association for the Advancement of Science to hold one of the annual meetings of its members within the Canadian territory, and for a second time has the association had the honor and pleasure of accepting the proffered hospitality.
SO far as the present writer knows, Mr. Jacob A. Riis was the first person to say that it was a boy’s energy and love of organization—not his badness—that made him join a street gang; Mr. Riis also added that energy and love of organization are just the characteristics to make the best members of a “boys’ club.”
CARL CHRISTOPH VOGT, the eldest of a family of nine children, was born in Giessen, Hesse, July 5, 1817, the son of Dr. Wilhelm Vogt, professor of clinics in the university of that place, and Louise Follenius. Professor Vogt, the father, lived honored and beloved by the people of Giessen, but frowned upon in official circles on account of his independent democratic spirit.
TO most persons such, a question will seem very absurd. Of course, the American people are civilized. They are probably the most civilized on the face of the earth, not in a material sense merely but in an immaterial sense. Where is there more anxious discussion of ways and means to elevate the condition of the poor both morally and physically, and to alleviate the sufferings of the unfortunate?
THE climatic treatment of disease has assumed an increasing importance during the last decade, and seems destined to become an even more essential factor than the actual exhibition of drugs. Many of our common ills, especially when they occur in large cities, are primarily due to vicious and unhygienic modes of living, so that oftentimes the simple change to other surroundings will effect a cure.
SOME volumes* of what promises to be an unusually valuable series (even in this day of series) have recently come to us in the shape of two little histories—one of England and one of Germany. They are intended to give a brief general outline of the more salient and striking points in the history of each country, and are written so as to attract and appeal to children, with the hope that the interest thus stimulated by these mere outlines will lead the grown-up child to a perusal of the more extended and complete general historical accounts.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins and Reports. Delaware College : No. 35. The Cherry in Delaware. By G. H. Powell. Pp. 23 — Hatch (Massachusetts) : No. 48. Fertilizers. Pp. 24.—Iowa Agricultural College : No. 35. Lambs, Calves, Swine, Sheep, and Milk.
Beal, in a paper on Some Common Birds in their Relation to Agriculture, observes that whether a bird is injurious or beneficial depends almost entirely on what it eats. If crows or blackbirds are seen in numbers about cornfields, or if woodpeckers are noticed at work in an orchard, it is perhaps not surprising that they are accused of doing harm.
THE excitement over the discoveries of gold in the Klondike has caused attention to be directed again to the search for the precious metal. Long neglected deposits are re-examined, the gravels of farms are inspected, and bits of sparkling yellow dirt are collected, to have it determined whether there may not be real gold in them.
OF the twelve hundred and six species of the animal kingdom which have been represented in the Zoölogical Gardens of Philadelphia up to the present time, one hundred and four have bred. The propagation of some of our native animals, which are becoming scarce in a wild state, has been conducted with a fair measure of success.