V.—LIMITATION AS RESPECTS INSTRUMENTALITIES BY WHICH TAXATION IN A CIVILIZED STATE EFFECTS ITS PURPOSE.
DAVID A. WELLS
ATTENTION is next asked to the instrumentality by which taxation subserves the necessities of the state and enables it to effect the purposes for which it was instituted. The designation of this instrumentality is "revenue," as is indicated in the phrase "tariff (or taxation) for revenue."
NO error is more prevalent among intelligent and well-read people than that the social philosophy of Herbert Spencer has little or no practical application to the modern problems of social reform. So deep-rooted is this error that the ablest religious journal in the United States, which gives much attention to these problems, once advised him to throw it away.
THE botanic garden connected with the old WÜrtemberg University at Tübingen is worthy of special notice, because of its history and its importance as a center of research in the biology of plants at the present time. The university with which it is connected was endowed more than four hundred years ago by the reigning house of WÜrtemberg, and during the entire period of its existence it has enjoyed the exclusive patronage of the grand ducal and later the royal family, as it is the only higher institution of learning within the kingdom.
IT can safely be said that we to-day know less about the antarctic regions than of any other portion of the earth's surface. We speak vaguely of an antarctic continent stretching across the southern pole, and some have even gone so far as to locate its boundaries, and to give an estimate of its superficial area.
TEN or twelve years ago even the most advanced physicians were not agreed that consumption belonged to the communicable diseases, and practically none took any steps to prevent its spread from the sick to the well. In fact, there were not a few who denied that it was ever contracted in this way.
THE necessity of thorough precautionary quarantine methods is generally accepted. The adoption and adaptation of methods and apparatus to keep pace with the knowledge that scientific research has placed at command is a matter that directly concerns the public and the departments of public health.
THE average American negro presents a puzzling contradiction in his educational progress. As rule he masters the elements of reading with ease; but as a rule also the developed language, the expressive medium of subtle relations and of complex experiences, defies his efforts.
THE human race, like most large groups in Nature, presents a considerable variety amid a still more fundamental similarity. It is evident that, if only we measure finely enough, no two specimens, however simple, are precisely alike; and in proceeding from the simple to the complex the opportunity for variation and diversity rapidly increases; and yet amid all this diversity of individuals there is much that is common, typical, and similar.
THE exhibition at the Trocadero and the dispatches of pigeons recently made at sea have attracted public attention to what may be called columbophilism. They have, moreover, revealed the existence of many flourishing societies that display their activity in the training of hundreds of thousands of pigeons.
NOT so skillful, and doubtless never will be, for to-day a spider's thread is used in the telescope because man has been unable to manufacture one so fine and delicate. Whenever I look at the marvelous web of the great black-andgold garden spider I remember that pretty story of the way in which the group of spiders received its name of Arachnidæ. In the olden times there was a lovely maiden named Arachne, who could weave and embroider with such deftness that the nymphs all gathered to watch her.
PETROLEUM, asphalt, and bitumen may be regarded as so related to one another, so like in origin and properties, as to be capable of being considered in the same treatise; and we may, therefore, speak properly now of one, now of the other. The oldest known form of natural hydrocarbon was the bitumen which rose to the surface of the Dead Sea, called from that circumstance the Asphaltum Lake.
THE province of Quebec in the Dominion of Canada is sometimes known as French Canada, because of the rights and privileges granted the inhabitants of French origin when Canada passed into the possession of the English crown, and because the majority of the inhabitants are of French ancestry and speak the French language.
OUR knowledge of the physiology of the human body has been so much enriched by pathological facts that we may truly say that some branches of it would, as far as we can see, have remained forever closed books if the effects of disease had not been observed.
WHILE the possession of articulate language marks man as distinct from other animals, it seems certain to me that he and they are formed upon the same pattern so far as relates to sensations and feelings. This will hardly be contested as to sensations.
THE United States has had no more assiduous working naturalist than Dr. G. Brown Goode; and few if any of them have contributed as much as he to the development and increase of the resources of our country. He was also one of the world's greatest museum administrators, and an anthropologist of most comprehensive views.
WE are all familiar with the troubles of the hen that, having hatched duck's eggs, sees with dismay her foster progeny betaking themselves to the water. Very similar, it seems to us, is the distress of mind which ecclesiastical authorities now and then display over the evident determination of the modern world to betake itself to the truths of science rather than to the dogmas of theology.
THE query that Prof. Trowbridge takes as the title of his recent book is one of the most difficult to give a direct answer to that have been propounded to modern science.* The answer given in this volume presents electricity to the adult reader from a much different point of view than was afforded by the treatise of his school or college days—say, ten to thirty years ago.
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. New Hampshire College: The Army Worm.—New York Station: Effects of Drought upon Milk Production; Feeding Experiments with Laying Hens; Report of Analysis of Commercial Fertilizers for the Spring of 1896; The Real Value of "Natural plant Food."
For several years past there has been a growing appreciation of the close relation between the general educational system of a country and its industrial prosperity. The striking advance in the latter respect which has occurred in Germany, and the perfection of her universities and mechanical schools, have formed a valuable object lesson, which, although surprisingly slow in doing its work, seems at last to have awakened English scientists and economists to the pressing need for action.
THE winter courses of Saturday evening lectures (1896-'97) at Columbia University, in co-operation with the American Museum of Natural History, began in December with a course on the Mountain Ranges of Western North America. The course for January will be upon Anthropology and Ethnology, and will include lectures on The Oldest Signs of Man in America, by Dr. D. G. Brinton; The Native Industrial Arts of the Indians of the United States, by Prof.