THE next step of importance in this discussion is to recognize clearly the relation which the exercise or function of taxation, as it has been defined, sustains to the state. ORIGIN AND JUSTIFICATION OF TAXATION.—The question at once suggests itself, “By what right does that entity which we call the state, whatever may be its concrete form, and whether its powers are exercised by a single man (Cæsar), by a particular class, or by a majority of citizens, take from the individual that which hitherto was absolutely his, annul his ownership, and convert the thing of value to its own use?”*
THE RELATIONS OF BIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND SOCIOLGY.
FROM time to time proof has come to me that in the United States there have arisen erroneous conceptions of my views concerning the connections between the sciences dealing respectively with organic evolution and super-organic evolution.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA.
I.—ORIGIN AND GENERAL ORGANIZATION.
D. T. MACDOUGAL
THE term botanic garden is used to designate a limited area of ground on which is grown a collection of plants of a large number of species, arranged in a manner that will subserve some educational, æsthetic, scientific, or economic purpose.
PROP. EDWARD P. EVANS is already well known to the readers of the Popular Science Monthly as a contributor of historical and psychological articles especially valuable and interesting. His position upon the editorial staff of one of the most important European journals gives him extraordinary opportunities to discern events having a real bearing upon contemporary thought.
THE pursuit of science does not stop in summer, and those who go abroad for rest or recreation find that science pursues them. It is a very profitable form of science which is thus prosecuted in summer, however, and that in two respects: for, in learning science in a summer congress, one gets the things which the best men oftentimes save up for just this or that occasion, and then again one gets the men thrown in.
TWO years ago I began to collect notes bearing on the settlements, manners, and customs of Indian tribes once inhabiting the country along the banks of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, from the American River, north to Chico Creek and eastward into the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
BY the beginning of the present reign the study of political economy in this country had worked itself free from earlier errors, and it had come to be believed that the secret of social regeneration lay in the utmost allowance of freedom of action to every individual of the community, so far at least as that action affected himself, coupled with the most complete development of the principle of self-reliance, so as to bring home to every member, freed from legal restraint on his liberty of action, the moral responsibility of self-support and of discharging the duties, present and to come, of his special position.
ALL the phenomena of which I have been treating in my past papers can be grouped under the three conceptions of suggestibility, automatism, and subconscious mental states. Suggestibility, in its narrowest sense, denotes an increased tendency on the part of certain mental states to work out their own proper results, without interference from other states, and especially without interference from that innermost essence of our sense of self which we call our will.
CHIEF OF CLINIC, DEPARTMENT OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASES, VANDERBILT CLINIC, COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS.
THE term idiots savants is applied to all such idiots, imbeciles, or feeble-minded as exhibit special aptitudes of one kind or another, always out of proportion to their intellectual development in other directions, and often remarkable as compared with similar accomplishments or faculties in normal individuals.
DURING the last few years instruction in our primary schools has been undergoing an interesting evolution. The authorities have broken away from superannuated traditions, and have arranged courses of a wholly new character. There are no more long analyses, endless conjugations, and dictations of catchwords.
LAST summer it was my fortune to spend the vacation on a unique trip through Michigan. My chum and I went down to Berrien Springs to try our hand selling books, but a week of this kind of life sufficed to show us that the rapid road to fortune did not lie here, as the advertisements would lead us to believe, and we abandoned books, bag, and baggage and joined the great army of men “on the road.”
THE family of which the “Rogers brothers” were conspicuous members furnishes a striking instance of the concurrence of consanguinity and affinity of genius and mental tendencies, and its history affords a marked confirmation of the doctrine of hereditary genius.
Editor Popular Science Monthly: SIR: I was both surprised and humiliated to find on my return from Bering Sea, a few days ago, a large correspondence from persons who had taken the “Sympsychograph” seriously. I had not the slightest idea that any one capable of “reading bound books” would be deceived by the meaningless phrases in that bit of burlesque.
ON more than one occasion lately we have had to note the growing liberality of theological thought in relation to scientific questions; and we now have before us another striking example of the same tendency in an address delivered at the recent Church Congress in England by Archdeacon Wilson, of Manchester, on The Bearing of the Theory of Evolution on Christian Doctrine.
THE trees, the author of this book * says, may be justly numbered among our best friends. But we need to know them better. “It is not enough to be able to distinguish an ash from a hickory or a fir from a spruce; it is more important by far that we should become acquainted with the form and character of the leaves, the fruit, and the bark, and thus acquire a fuller knowledge of the way the tree lives.
Mental Overstrain in Education.—In a recent address before the British Medical Association, under the above title, Dr. G. E. Shuttleworth called attention to some of the harmful results caused by the undiscriminating educational methods of the public schools.