IN the present paper I purpose to discuss briefly the nature of the moral standard, strictly so called. The simplest way of approaching the subject will perhaps be to pass in rapid review the other principal criteria of conduct, by contrast with which the essential character of the moral criterion itself will be brought into conspicuous relief.
THE life of the sea has ever had a peculiar interest to people of every class and calling—the strange and bright-colored fishes, the sea stars and anemones, the rich forests of seaweeds, the ghostly and luminous ,jellyfishes introduce to their observers a submerged world which bears with it every charm of the unreal and the unknown.
AT one o'clock on an August morning in 1877 I found myself on the stage bound for Sissons, in Strawberry Valley, a bit of civilization nestled among the pines and redwoods twenty miles from the summit of Mount Shasta. The stage road wound through mountain passes and interminable forests of pines, following up the Sacramento River, here a torrential stream.
ABOUT a year ago the distinguished anthropologist of the University of Zürich, Dr. Rudolph Martin, presented the writer with a small but very valuable collection of photographs of certain peoples of India and the East Indies. Some of these are very rare, and, upon searching the ethnological works in the Government libraries in Washington, I have been unable to find examples of quite a number of them.
WE find in studying the past epochs of the earth's history that they have been marked by an abundance of life, even exceeding any which prevails in the present. Comparing the existing state with the past, we are struck with the immensity of the part played by the inferior organisms.
See what a lovely shell, Small and pure as a pearl, Lying close to my foot, Frail, but a work divine, Made so fairly well With delicate spire and whorl, How exquisitely minute, A miracle of design ! Slight, to be crushed with a tap Of my finger nail on the sand ; Small, but a work divine ;
THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE MOTOR ACTIVITIES IN TEACHING.
PROF. EDWARD R. SHAW
THE recent development of our knowledge of the nervous mechanism in its relation to the processes of education leads us to appreciate the great worth of the ideas advanced by two educators of the last century, Basedow and Heusinger, and also to see quite clearly the great advantage which will result in the work of the school from the applications of the truths set forth by them.
BEFORE discussing the conception of double personality, it may be as well briefly to review the conceptions of which I have so far made use. I have held that the human mind must be conceived as a complex system of elements which is capable of greater or less degrees of disruption or disordination without the total destruction of its component elements.
WE can estimate the popularity of any branch of knowledge by the interest taken by the public in the lives of the men who are identified with it. We read with avidity the lightest details in the careers of military leaders for the glamour which is attached to war ; but the victories and defeats of students of Nature pass unregarded.
ALPHONSE KARR has said: "Man is the gayest of animals; much more, he is the only gay one, the only one that laughs." Toussenel is equally explicit: "Laughter is a characteristic faculty of man." Gratiolet observes that "when man freely breathes a pure air, fresh and uncontaminated, his mouth dilates slightly, his upper lip reveals more or less of his upper front teeth, and the corners of the mouth gracefully elevate themselves; the muscles that determine this movement act at the same time upon his cheeks and raise them, slightly lifting the outer angles of his eyes, which become a little oblique.
PRIMITIVE man fills his world with. innumerable spirits, both good and bad, and much of his time is spent in devising means whereby he may invoke the aid of one class to assist him in averting the malignant influence of the other. The dread and wonder excited by the phenomena of the elements, or the discovery of anything abnormal, either animate or inanimate, suggest to his mind the existence and manifestation of deities.
THE chlorophyll cells and the leaves of the plant may be regarded as little laboratories elaborating vegetable matter ; they work upon the carbonic acid, which the enormous quantity of water they contain enables them to extract from the atmosphere, reduce it, and form with the residue from its decomposition, after the elimination of oxygen, sugars and cellulose, straw-gum, vasculose, and all the ternary matters composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen ; these cells likewise reduce the nitrates which are brought to them at the same time with phosphoric acid, potash, and silica, by the water which constantly traverses the plant, entering it at the root and being exhaled from the leaves.
I WAS a witness in 1887 of a combat between a halictus bee and its sphœcode parasite, a “ cuckoo bee,” which took place in the open air, outside of the nest. The nests of the Halictus malachurus (Kirby), which are found excavated in the compact soil of garden walks, are narrower at the entrance than below, and here the sentinel bee closes access with its head.
THE average man has no idea of the real meaning of the common adjective phrase "deaf and dumb." He occasionally sees a group in some public place conversing by means of signs or the manual alphabet, and he says to himself, "Deaf and dumb." Less often he comes in contact with an orally taught deaf person, and either talks with him or hears others talk with him, and goes away and says: "I met a deaf and dumb man to-day and heard him talk; it's wonderful, wonderful!" quite unconscious meantime that his way of expressing what he saw is also wonderful.
THE life of WILLIAM C. REDFIELD, said Prof. Denison Olmsted, in a memorial address delivered at the time of his death, "affords an interesting and instructive theme for contemplation in a threefold point of view—as affording a marked example of the successful pursuit of knowledge under difficulties, as happily illustrating the union in the same individual of the man of science with the man of business, and as exhibiting a philosopher whose researches have extended the boundaries of knowledge and greatly augmented the sum of human happiness."
AS there is a new everything in these days, we suppose it was inevitable that there should be a "new woman "; though why a new woman more than a new man it might not be easy to explain. For our part we believe but faintly in "new" woman we believe in woman.
THE vivisection question has not yet created nearly as much stir in America as it has in England, where it has long been a rival of the Deceased Wife’s Sister controversy as a provoker of agitation and rhetorical discharges. It has, however, recently come into view here through an attempt to induce Congress to pass a bill imposing severe restrictions on vivisection in the District of Columbia.
Notes from the American Association.— The attendance at the Buffalo meeting of the American Association—three hundred and thirty—was the smallest in its recent history. A curve with very marked indentations published in Science shows that the attendance on the meetings has steadily decreased since it reached its maximum in 1880 to 1884.