III.—THE DEFINITION, OBJECT, AND SPHERE OF TAXATION.
DAVID A. WELLS
IT would seem to be in the nature of an economic or common sense axiom, that a large and varied experience in respect to the management of any one of the great departments of the world’s business, would result in the gradual evolution and final definite establishment of certain rules or principles, which would be almost universally recognized and accepted as a basis for practical application and procedure.
THE SYMPSYCHOGRAPH : A STUDY IN IMPRESSIONIST PHYSICS.
DAVID STARR JORDAN.
THE Astral Camera Club of Alcalde was organized in November, 1895, for purposes of scientific research through the medium of photography. The function of the club was the cooperative study of man’s latent psychical powers, that these might be made helpful in the conduct of life.
HARDLY more than a generation ago naturalists were forming, under the lead of the great Englishman, those conceptions of organic development and of the blood relationship of living beings resulting from common descent which have formed the starting point of almost all subsequent research.
II,—VIVISECTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF RELIGION AND MORALITY.
C. F. HODGE
FOR about thirty years the vivisection question has been before the public in this country. Discussion has often been hot and bitter, both in the press and in society, and again it is upon us in exactly its old form. What are we to do with it? What, so far as this country is concerned, has the controversy accomplished?
THE criminal influence of the alien with its steady increase can be traced back in our history for the last sixty years. So surely and yet so gradually has it grown upon us that we have now become thoroughly accustomed to a condition of things which would have been extremely shocking to our rugged ancestors as they are sometimes called.
I HAVE already had occasion more than once to speak of the development of a mental state from the stage which we term idea to that which we term sensation. Before taking up the matter in hand it will be necessary to go into this question at somewhat greater length.
IT is well known that some bees are social and form nests where their broods are reared, workers existing who provide daily for the young. In architectural skill these social kinds do not always hold a foremost place. The cells composing their nests vary in shape from the perfectly hexagonal, as in the hive, to those which are less regularly six-sided, until in the bumblebees’ homes they are not in the least like the delicate, sharply defined structures of the true honeybee, but are oval and isolated or distributed almost at random.
OF all the arts at which man has labored, that of molding clay was probably the first, the most primitive. It has been practiced in all parts of the world, and the thousands of specimens yet existing are an aid to archaeological studies, particularly when found intact and unblemished.
FOR some years the writer has been gathering data on the transportation of sand and dust by the atmosphere, with a view of studying the geological significance of these phenomena. Among other sources of information the newspapers have been drawn upon, and it is to the facts gathered from these, and by personal correspondence that it is at present desired to direct attention.
WE delight to glorify the “new woman," the advanced woman. If, however, we study Prof. Otis T. Mason's book, Woman's Share in Primitive Culture, we find the “ new woman " to be only a revival of a very ancient type. Prof. Mason says that, for the highest ideals of civilization, in humanitarianism, education, and government, the way was prepared in savagery by mothers and the female clan groups.
THE territory of the Banziris extends along the northern shore of the upper Oubanghi between the rivers Ombela and Kouango, Africa. They have also a few villages on the southern shore that belong to the Congo Free State. The whole number of Banziris on the north shore may be about four thousand ; we lack data for estimating the number of those on the south shore.
ENRICO FERRI, the pupil and collaborator of Cesare Lombroso in the science of Criminal Anthropology, which the latter may almost be said to have created, has just published a truly monumental work consisting of over seven hundred closely printed pages and an appendix of over three hundred, in which he subjects to a most searching and minute examination the problem of homicide from the point of view of Criminal Anthropology.
THE story of the trap-setting and insect-eating plants is a more than twice-told tale. The pitcher-plant, which beguiles the hapless fly to his drowning in its vase-shaped leaves, baited on the outside with nectar-bearing glands, and filled with water; the Venus’s flytrap, which shuts up on him and crushes him ; the sundew (Drosera), which chokes him in a sticky secretion, are all known, at least by pictures and descriptions, to the tyro in botanic study.
THE Veat, or Buddhist monastery, is in Cambodia very much what the Christian monastery was in Europe in the middle ages—a community of persons devoted to religion, having a chapel, a place of entertainment for strangers, and a school for boys.
SAMUEL LUTHER DANA, the second son of Lucy (Giddings) and Captain Luther Dana, was born July 11, 1795, in the town of Amherst, not far from Nashua, N. H. He was descended from Richard Dana, who came to this country and settled in Cambridge about 1640.
SIR: In consideration of the great interest I felt in an able article in your magazine for May, entitled Political Rights and Duties of Woman, I venture to express some of the thoughts which stirred me upon its perusal. As I understood them, the writer’s objections to the principle of woman suffrage can be classed under three general heads : objections as to the advisability or possibility of certain occupations for women ; objections on the plea of the privileges which they already enjoy ; and objections based on the idea of any change in the character of woman, as wife or mother.
IN many minds it is a settled conviction that the attitude of the Christian clergy toward science must necessarily be one of antagonism. There has been much, of course, in the history of the past to give countenance to such a view, and possibly the recent publication of President Andrew D. White’s able and interesting volumes on The Warfare of Science with Theology may just now he doing something to strengthen and extend the impression.
PROF. GIDDINGS'S Principles of Sociology* is a very opportune book. A disposition has been manifesting itself for several years to call almost everything sociology. Most of the popular journals now have a department of sociology, into which they put everything going on in society that does not clearly belong to party politics.
X Rays in Surgery.—Considerable advance has been made during the past few months in the application of the X ray to surgical diagnosis, and it seems fairly certain now that the trunk with its contents, as well as the extremities, may be examined by the use of this agent.