RODBERTUS turned aside from his studies of taxation in the Roman Empire, which had shown him the Roman city exhausting and consuming the rest of the Roman world, to express the opinion that the history of the last three hundred years is a story of the exploitation of the outlying continents by the old centers of civilization.
IN resigning the provostship of the University of Pennsylvania in 1894, Dr. William Pepper defined the broad policy of the institution in the following appropriate language: “The university is truly the voluntary association of all persons and of all agencies who wish to unite in work for the elevation of society by the pursuit and diffusion of truth.”
II.—THE PLACE OF TAXATION IN LITERATURE AND HISTORY.
DAVID A. WELLS
THE TAX EXPERIENCES OF SWITZERLAND.—Any review of the notable experiences of the Governments of different countries in raising revenue for their maintenance and support would be incomplete if it failed to notice those of Switzerland, where the conditions involved are, to say the least, exceptional, or different in many respects from those of any other government or country.
TO the many who annually wander forth in quest of a "change of scene," and have not yet fully exhausted the wonders of Nature in their search after the purely beautiful, any locality that offers material for special wonderment comes with pleasing interest.
IN venturing to speak or write about a topic so much spoken about and so much written about as education, one may be pardoned a little hesitation. In the midst of our present wealth of educational theories, the need seems not so much for any addition to them or any restatement of them as for a little genuine, wholesome action in carrying them into effect.
IN this age of increasing specialization and multiplying societies and organizations of specialists it is well that there still remains an association broad enough to include the entire range of scientific thought and activity, and comprehensive enough to welcome all who have the disposition to explore any field in the vast domain of science.
THE word "automatism” not only designates a group of phenomena but also connotes a theory as to their origin, and this theory rests upon the popular conception of the relation of “soul” and body. The soul, according to it, is an entity of a peculiar kind, entirely distinct from and independent of the body.
WITH this outcome, we may return to the genius. And the first requirement is that we state the social man in the fewest terms, in order that we may then judge the genius with reference to the sane social man, the normal socius. What he is we have seen.
WHETHER we follow the old spelling of "escalop,” the modern form of “scallop,” now used by naturalists, or write it “scollop,” after the manner of the fishermen, we find all three modes sanctioned by the dictionaries. Near the seacoast this mollusk is a great favorite, rivaling the clam and the oyster, and by many persons preferred to either.
IT is a pretty widespread opinion that nervous diseases, and especially hysteria, have alarmingly increased during the last decades, and that they are about to increase much more. In all civilized countries, we are told, and in every stratum of the population, a weakness of the nervous system manifests itself of which our forefathers had no knowledge.
AMERICA will never cease to benefit from the influence of its Puritan stock. Although the former preponderance in national affairs of New England as a section has disappeared with the widening of our territory, the vigor, the intellect, and the conscience of the settlers at Plymouth and at Boston have been diffused by their restless descendants through every State in the Union.
THE MONTHLY has lately given place to two articles on the subject of the demand which is now being made by some women on behalf of their sex to be allowed to participate in political life on a footing of perfect equality with men. One of our contributors has tried to show cause why the demand should not be granted, taking the ground that the change would be injurious to society as a whole and particularly injurious to the female sex.
IN his recently published History of the Warfare of Science,* Dr. Andrew D. White has given the world a work of great practical value—a work to which we can confidently refer any one who desires to know not only what is thought to-day in the principal departments of scientific inquiry, but by what stages the crude and illogical fancies of an earlier period gave way to conclusions founded on observation and induction.
IT is doubtful if any more generally interesting subject will be found for the Library of Useful Stories than the one treated in the second volume that Mr. Chambers* has contributed. It is evident also that this author has the faculty of making a truly popular scientific book.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Connecticut Station : Nineteenth Annual Report, 1895.— Illinois Station : Bulletin No. 43. Composition and Digestibility of Corn Ensilage, etc.—Massachusetts Station : Bulletins Nos. 38 and 39, and Fungous Diseases of Ornamental Plants, by B. D. Halstead.
Nutritive Value of Meats.—In a recent article on the value of meats as food, in the Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette, Prof. R. H. Chittenden corrects several very widespread misconceptions regarding meat values. He says : “The cheapest food is that which supplies the most nutriment for the least money.
WAR is defined by M. Ch. Letourneau, in his book on the subject, as having robbery for its object and murder as its means. The author’s other numerous books are about the evolution of some social factor or another, but he does not treat of the evolution of war—because, he avers, there is, fundamentally, no evolution of war.
SINCE the photographic method of observation was adopted, Prof. Max Wolf, of Heidelberg, has discovered thirty-six asteroids between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, not one of which has he seen through the telescope. THE total output of gold in the United States in 1895 was approximately $46,740,000.