II.—THE PLACE OF TAXATION IN LITERATURE AND HISTORY.
DAVID A. WELLS
THE TAX EXPERIENCES OF INDIA.—In contrast with the record of tax experiences in Egypt, that of India under like (British) influences, though equally singular and instructive, is not equally satisfactory. The elements of the problem of raising sufficient revenue to defray the expenses of the state since India passed under British rule and influence are substantially as follows :
PHOTOGRAPHY plays many important parts in modern science. It assists the astronomer by revealing the existence of thousands and thousands of worlds veiled in the obscurity of immeasurable distance and invisible to the eye even when aided by the most powerful telescope in existence.
PSYCHOLOGICAL science has reached a sort of understanding in these recent years of the individual and of the social setting in which he customarily disports himself; and the duty now devolves upon it of dealing with the exceptions to the rule.
THE objects of polar exploration are fourfold: 1. COMMERCE.—According to General Greely, whaling has contributed over six hundred and eighty million dollars to the wealth of Holland, England, and the United States. Exploration will probably reveal new whaling grounds.
IT is not to be supposed that many of the heads of the six million families in the United States whose incomes are less than six hundred dollars a year ever have in their possession more than a few dollars that are not required for immediate needs.
WE think of the birds as dainty creatures, fit for poetry, song, and airy flights; but if we faithfully watch them a little, we shall discover that nearly their whole time and energy are devoted to securing their “ daily bread.” Our familiar song birds begin their day about three in the morning; from that time until seven or eight in the evening the hours are mainly occupied in searching for food.
IF there be any truth in the doctrines I have already put forth in these pages, it seems a priori probable that suggestion will prove useful in combating some of the many ills that flesh is heir to. The various devices for heightening suggestibility are simply devices for increasing the effects proper to any given mental state by removing from its path all obstacles.
IF we could see the entire earth at once, by some grand extension of our range of vision, as we might walk around a geographic globe a hundred feet in diameter, and examine it fully, with comparison of all portions of its area, probably no other features of the great terrestrial panorama would be so impressive as the wonderful diversity of climatic conditions.
THE title of this article would seen to require little definition. By county parks are meant simply open grounds available for public use in rural districts as are city parks in towns. There is nothing new in the idea; it is simply an effort to call back into public favor the once familiar public “common.”
THE fact that there is great social discontent throughout the entire western world requires no demonstration. The forms in which it manifests itself are numerous. In the various phases of socialism, and in nihilism, it permeates every department of European life.
IN the Life and Letters of Mr. George P. Marsh, Volume I, page 219, is the following account of the brilliant success of the treatment of two sprains by a wild Arab: “There seemed, however, small chance that the proposed journey to Sinai, Petra, Jerusalem, etc., could be carried out.
AMONG the picturesque industrial possibilities of our southern Pacific coast is the artificial production of pearls. By this is meant, not the manufacture of artificial pearls, but the artificial growing of real pearls; that is, instead of the haphazard pearl-fishing of the present, the establishment, on the southern California coast, of oyster ranches, where the pearl-producing bivalves shall be scientifically directed and assisted in growing both gem pearls and mother-of-pearl.
THE distinguished physiologist, JACOB MOLESCHOTT, was born August 9, 1822, in Hertogenbush,* the capital city and chief commercial and industrial center of North Brabant in Holland. His father was a physician of some note, and his paternal grandfather a reputable apothecary; on his mother’s side he was the grandchild of the celebrated Dr. Van der Monde.
SIR: Your editorial entitled Necessity, in the April number of the Popular Science Monthly, attracted my attention, and as a general statement this much of your conclusion commands my approval: “In every well-balanced mind the thought of necessity is habitually present, calling forth efforts of self-restraint which tend to conserve and consolidate the individual’s happiness and well-being.
THE time is at hand for the annual migration from the city to the country or the seaside of all whose means enable them to allow themselves that pleasure. There is doubtless something more than fashion in the movement, for fashion is arbitrary and changeful, while the habit we speak of has been steadily growing in generality for the last half century or more. If we seek for the philosophy of it we may reasonably regard it as the expression of a periodical craving of human beings for closer contact with Nature than the conditions of city life permit.
UNDER the able editorship of Sir Henry E. Roscoe the Century Science series continues to afford popular biographies of the leading European scientists of the nineteenth century, written by those who are to-day filling the places of their departed masters.
THE author’s Fungi: their Nature, Influence, and Uses, which appeared in 1875 and passed through several editions, has long been the standard, and probably one of the best and most comprehensive works in our language on the subject. The rapid advance in knowledge of the life history and development of these organisms during the last ten years, and especially the large scheme of classification carried out by Prof.
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Journal of. Second series, Vol X. Morphology of the Cerebral Convolutions, with Special Reference to the Order of Primates. By A. J. Parker, M. D. Agricultural Experiment Stations. Connecticut: Nineteenth Annual Report.
Mysterious Fractnres in Steel.—The socalled mysterious fractures in steel, with which every engineer is familiar, bid fair to become things of the past. The following facts, taken from a recently reported analysis of specimens from a fractured steamship “tail shaft,” are especially interesting, as showing the great value of investigations which at first sight may seem entirely barren of anything but theoretical interest.
THE Bulgarians, according to the report of the United States consul at Annaberg, love music. They sing a great deal, at home, in entertainments, and in their occupations. The shepherds or the harvestreapers on opposite heights often sing in alternation, stanza in answer to stanza.
THE acquisition by States of tracts of forest is urged by the friends of forestry as a measure for the conservation of water powers, the amelioration of climate, the preservation of scenery, and the instruction of the people. Aside from the benefit thus derived, it is urged that these forests may be made to yield a fair return upon their cost and maintenance.