II.—THE PLACE OF TAXATION IN LITERATURE AND HISTORY.
DAVID A. WELLS
TAXATION IN Egypt.—Herodotus, the Father of History, in writing more than two thousand years ago about Egypt, characterized it as a land of wonders, “ containing more marvelous things than any other country,” and in this opinion the judgment of succeeding ages, finding an all-sufficient warrant in primeval, stupendous, and mysterious monuments, has been compelled, as it were, fully to acquiesce.
THE framing of the continent was a work of great antiquity Upon that foundation the plains and mountains were slowly built, and out of them the valleys have since been carved. The last touch in the completion of the continent has been the making of the lakes.
THE report that reached us last February to the effect that Dr. Nansen’s adventurous expedition had actually succeeded in reaching the pole, naturally set everybody to reviewing the reasons which led him to adopt his peculiar plan. Among the facts which led him to believe that there was a steady current flowing westward across the pole, there has been frequent mention of an Alaskan throwing stick picked up on the southwest coast of Greenland.
THE common consensus of thoughtful minds in these latter days has been gradually tending more and more toward the proper co-ordination and correlation of our educational institutions. In a comparatively new country like ours it may naturally be supposed that, as the need for various grades of these institutions has arisen, the want has not always been supplied with a sufficiently careful consideration of the needs of those of other grades, and that, as a result, the general educational interests of the country require some readjustment and reorganization.
DURING the last half century or more, and especially during the latter part of this time, Science has made use of a variety of natural objects and living animals in her laboratories to demon-strate the laws and facts of biology. The fundamental phenomena of plant and animal life have been taught by Huxley by placing before his students in the laboratory such material as yeast, and such types of vegetable and animal organization as protococcus, proteus animalculæ, bacteria, molds, stoneworts, ferns, bean plant, bell animalculæ, polyps, mussels, crayfish, and frogs.
ADVOCATES of the metric system allege that all opposition to it results from “ignorant prejudice.” This is far from being the fact. There are strong grounds for rational opposition, special and general; some already assigned and others which remain to be assigned.
AS has been perceived, it is by the constant exchange of human effort that human welfare is promoted, and therefore is necessarily a means whereby each portion of effort contributing to the total welfare may be measured and rewarded. This means or medium of exchange is money, and its development has been as follows:
AS master of electricity man is crowned the king of Nature. A brief glance at what electricity has done and promises to do may have interest in itself; it may have yet more in disclosing the law by which art and science march onward with ever-hastened pace, how it comes about that the history of modern progress is little else than a story of revolution.
IN my two preceding articles (March and April numbers) I have discussed what may be termed categorical suggestions and other closely related topics. I shall now take up certain other forms of suggestion. From the conception of suggestibility it follows that any mental state, however initiated, tends to produce certain results.
IF every man considered it a matter of conscience to give voice in his vote to the feminine element in his household, it would put another aspect upon the demand for woman suffrage. If, after a family conclave, the husband, father, or brother quietly pocketed his own conflicting opinion, sallied forth and supported the measures favored by the home majority, what right-minded woman could complain?
THE investigations in palethnology which I have been pursuing for several years in the departments of Gard, Ardèche, and Vaucluse, France, have led me to explore the subterranean cavities, avens, caverns, and rivers which furrow the region of the Causses.
THE American mocking bird (Mimus polyglottos), although native to a country which claims to be democratic in principle, is by nature pure and simple a born aristocrat. It is true that at first sight he may be a disappointment to any one anticipating a bird of brilliant color; but the more one studies the mocker the more strengthened becomes the opinion that few birds, if any, can aspire to his dainty, high-bred personality, or to his slender grace and elegance of movement.
SCIENCE has need of all manner of men among its votaries. He whose career will be traced in this memoir devoted to its service a warm sympathy, an inspiring utterance, a high degree of constructive faculty, and a conscientiousness which caused him ever to give his best efforts to the duty before him.
A RECENT writer in one of the magazines quotes John Stuart Mill as speaking in one of his letters to the historian Motley of "the fatal belief of your public that anybody is fit for anything." The trouble to which Mill refers is one that dates a long way back.
THE first volume of the Criminology Series was the result of a special research; the second has a broader and more philosophical scope.* Obviously the collection and choice of data lie at the base of any reasoning in criminology. Considerable attention has been paid to such data as anatomical, physiological, and psychological anomalies of criminals.
Some New Observations on Underground Temperatures.—Some recent observations on underground temperatures are described in the December number of the American Journal of Science by Prof. A. Agassiz. He says: "For several years past I have, with the assistance of Mr. Preston C. F. West, been making rock temperature observations as we increased the depth at which the mining operations of the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company were carried on.