NIAGARA FALLS IN History.—Guided by an Indian chief, La Salle and Hennepin visited Niagara Falls in 1678, but it was not until 1697 that Hennepin published his picture of the cataracts, which, in spite of the rude perspective of two centuries ago and the prominence of the voyageurs, is famous for having been the first pictorial representation of the falls of Niagara (Fig. 1).
THE consideration of every problem Concerning the welfare of humanity compels, first, the understanding of what constitutes that welfare. That is, recognition must be had of the factors that forward civilization, which is the condition that permits the attainment by each individual of the highest harmonious, physical, mental, and moral development of which he is capable.
II.—THE PLACE OF TAXATION IN LITERATURE AND HISTORY.
DAVID A. WELLS,
TAXATION IN France.—No chapter in history is more replete with interest and instruction than that which exhibits the system for exacting contributions for the support of the state which characterized the fiscal policy and administration of France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and which is now acknowledged to have been mainly instrumental in bringing on the memorable revolution in the closing years of the latter century.
IT is highly probable that at one time or another most of the civilized nations of the world knew of certain small, undersized men, and that they constructed and built up legends and myths about them. The ancient Talmudic writers, however, were probably unacquainted with these little people, for nowhere in the Old Testament nor in any of the ancient Hebrew writings are they mentioned.
IN studying the important question of management of employees of industrial establishments from a common-sense as well as just and humanitarian point of view, it is necessary to remember that a factory is not an eleemosynary institution ; the functions of the two are radically different, and experience has proved that modern manufacturing industries can not be practically conducted under the old idea of paternal or patriarchal regulations.
THE COST AND DANGER OF Strikes.—Few persons are aware of the enormous annual loss of wages clue to strikes. Startling figures are furnished by the Labor Bureau at Washington in a recent publication covering the period from 1881 to 1894 inclusive.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA.
D. T. MACDOUGAL
THAT the color exhibited by the roots, stems, leaves, and especially flowers and fruits of plants received serious attention at a very early date is well attested by ancient record. It was only in comparatively recent time, however, that the daring conjecture was hazarded that even such an abundant, widely distributed, and characteristic color as chlorophyll (leaf-green) subserved a purpose in the life-process of plants.
THE political enfranchisement of women is so prominent a topic of discussion among all people that live under representative governments that no apology seems required for a contribution to the debate. It does not, however, seem necessary to recapitulate the arguments for and against the concession of the ballot to women—as if that alone was the ultimate or principal part of their demand—or to sum up and formulate any judicial finding on the basis of these arguments.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
ALBERT H. TOLMAN~
THE greatest forms of literature hold the mirror up to Nature —that is, to life. Literary conventions, even, go hack at some point to real life. Because actual Sicilian shepherds once piped their happy songs where Theocritus heard them, the world has had its long line of pastoral poetry, an intolerable deal of the sack of empty repetition and formalism to one half pennyworth of the bread of reality.
THE general interest which the so-called Röntgen rays have excited among the unscientific as well as among the specialists seems to justify a more extended treatment than their actual value to humanity, so far as at present known, would warrant.
MONG the distinguished physicists America has produced Prof. HENRY AUGUSTUS ROWLAND, of Johns Hopkins University is unanimously accorded a leading place. He was born at Honesdale, Pa., November 27, 1848. His forefathers were among the earliest settlers of Fairfield, Conn.
SIR : In the last number of your valuable publication appeared an address by Prof. W. Ostwald, of Leipsic, on The Failure of Scientific Materialism, the reading of which suggested the following considerations : Leaving aside the intrinsic value of his statements, I wish to call attention to the sensational manner in which they are announced, and to the implied claims on them as original thoughts, or, indeed, as the author himself says, as indisputable, though startling, scientific discoveries.
PATRIOTISM is one of those virtues which have suffered so much from counterfeit and alloy that the word has come to have a very doubtful sound to experienced ears. So seriously, indeed, has it been damaged that one would in general prefer to use some other term to convey whatever respectable meaning it has hitherto covered.
Dr. A. F. Chamberlain has chosen for a folklore study a field made doubly attractive by the newly aroused interest in the psychology of the child.* Truly he has garnered an abundant harvest. It would be difficult to think of any activity or relation of children that is not represented in the thirty-three chapters in which he has arranged his material.
Commerce and Dronght.—The serious loss which a prolonged drought may cause, not simply to agriculture, but in an even more marked degree to commerce, is drawn attention to by Prof. L. M. Haupt, in a recent number of the Journal of the Franklin Institute.