II.—THE PLACE OF TAXATION IN LITERATURE AND HISTORY.
DAVID A. WELLS
TAXATION IN THE MEDIÆVAL PERIOD.—With the termination of the Roman Empire of the West, which is regarded as having taken place A. D. 476, when Odoacer, chief of the Germanic tribe Heruli, captured the city and assumed the title of King of Italy, a new and great element was introduced into European life, through the intermingling of the northern barbarians with the civilized, Christianized, and degraded Romans of the south.
THE PRACTICAL RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL RESEARCHES.
GEORGE M. STERNBERG
GENTLEMEN: In selecting a subject for my presidential address I have thought it best to restrict myself to that branch of biological science with which I am most familiar; and, as a technical paper might prove uninteresting to many of those who constitute my present audience, I have chosen a title for my address which will enable me to speak in a general way of the development of our knowledge relating to the low vegetable organisms known as bacteria, and the practical results which have been the outcome of researches commenced in the first instance solely on account of their scientific interest.
ALTHOUGH the fruits of the tropics seldom ripen in temperate climates, the trees are often cultivated merely for the beauty of their foliage; so that it may prove of interest to become further acquainted with their general appearance and uses in their far-off native habitats.
THE events of the last few months in the field of international politics, though they have been of a sufficiently disquieting character, have served at the same time to reveal the profound antagonism between the idea of war and the developed moral consciousness of the age.
SINCE the publication of Hertz’s paper on the penetration of thin sheets of metal, notably aluminum, by the cathode rays, interest in the remarkable phenomena investigated first by Prof. Crookes has been reawakened to a marked degree; and most physicists during the past five years have regarded the subject of cathode rays as the most important one in electricity.
WHAT is the first effect of a tropical climate upon the human body and its functions?* The respiration becomes more rapid for a time, although it soon tends toward the normal;† the pulse beats more quickly;‡ the appetite is stimulated;# and a surexcitation of the kidneysǁ and the sexual organs ensues;Δ the individual as a rule becomes thinner;⧫ the liver tends to increase in size, which is perhaps the cause of a certain sallowness of skin;↧ and in females menstruation is often disturbed, the age of puberty being sooner reached.*
I HAVE been told that the fashion of tattooing the arm exists among women of prominence in London society. The taste for this style is not a good indication of the refinement and delicacy of the English ladies: first, it indicates an inferior sensitiveness, for one has to be obtuse to pain to submit to this wholly savage operation without any other object than the gratification of vanity; and it is contrary to progress, for all exaggerations of dress are atavistic.
ISHALL deal in this paper with abnormal states of several types, all of which, in my opinion, may be grouped under the one concept of disordination. The normal consciousness is in all apparently destroyed or displaced, and very often memory of the abnormal states is lacking.
THE doctrine that land forms have had a history chiefly distinguishes the new geography from the old. Geography, indeed, takes account of sea as well as land, of the phenomena of the atmosphere, the distribution of organisms, including man, of economic products and political divisions.
THE story is told in Joubert’s Popular Errors concerning Medicine, published at Bordeaux, France, in 1579, that one Gonelle, a jester at the court of the Duke of Ferrara, insisted once upon a time that the trade which had the most followers was that of doctor.
A FEW days since I witnessed an engineering feat on the part of a company of ants that interested me greatly. A Florida chameleon (Anolis principalis) had wandered into my laboratory and taken refuge under a newspaper which was lying in a chair.
WEALTH—concentrated to a high degree in the hands of an individual—has a mission, a social function, which is derived from its very nature and which it alone can properly fulfill. Wealth has the power of commanding production and labor, and consequently of giving a direction to both; indirectly, without show, but very effectively, more intimately, and more familiarly, a rich man, like a politician, is a leader of men.
OF the three professions formerly distinguished as "learned," that of medicine is the only one connected with natural science. Hence it is not surprising that, in the times when scientific research could seldom be pursued except as an avocation, it was frequently joined to his vocation by the physician.
THE saying that we can not put old heads on yonng shoulders, figuratively expresses, among other truths, the truth that the beliefs which in youth result from small information joined with undisciplined thought and feeling, can not, until after long years, be replaced by the beliefs which wider knowledge and better balanced mental powers produce.
RöNTGEN TO THE RESCUE! OR, A NEW CHANCE FOR ABSURDITY.
SUCH is the title of an exceedingly interesting, well-considered, and, in our opinion, weighty article contributed by Prof. Ladd, of Yale, to a late number of our excellent contemporary the Educational Review. The writer well remarks at the outset that the word “liberal” applied to education must imply some sort of differentiation.
WE often see allusions to the triumphs of the inventor, and descriptions of single achievements are constantly being presented by the periodical press, but it is a long time since a goodly number of them have been brought together systematically as in the volume now before us.*
UNDER the editorial care of Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan has appeared the second volume of the work upon which Prof. Romanes* was engaged at the time of his death. The present volume is mainly devoted to a consideration of those post Darwinian theories which involve fundamental questions of heredity or utility.
Aëronautical Annual, The. Edited by James Means. Boston: W. B. Clarke & Co. $1 a year. A. I. C. P. Notes. Bimonthly. 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York city. 10 cents a copy, 50 cents a year. Arrowsmith, Robert, and Knapp, Charles. Viri Romæ.
Seven Years of Strikes.—Mr. Wright, the Commissioner of Labor, gives some interesting information in his last report. During the past seven years and a half the number of persons thrown out of employment by strikes was 2,391,203. His tabulation by States shows that the majority of these disturbances took place in five States—Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
WHILE illustrating glacier movements to the British Association, Prof. W. J. Sollers said that pitch and glacier ice strikingly resemble each other in behaving as solids or liquids, according to circumstances. On the sudden application of force they are very brittle, but behave as fluids when subjected to gradual pull and pressure.
AT Bedford College (for women) in England a very commendable addition to the curriculum has recently been made in the establishing of a special course in hygiene. Students are required to devote themselves for one session at least to physiology, bacteriology, chemistry, and physics, practically as well as theoretically.
Abbott, Charles C. The Effect of Prolonged Drought upon Animal Life......................................................... 465 Acclimatization. W. Z. Ripley................................. 662, 779 Acetylene Lamp, M. Trouvé’s.