II.—THE PLACE OF TAXATION IN LITERATURE AND HISTORY. PART II.
DAVID A. WELLS,
TAXATION IN ANCIENT GREECE.—In Athens, according to Boeckh, the revenues of the state were derived from receipts from the public domains, including mines, partly from taxes analogous to our “ customs ” and “ excise,” and some taxes upon industry and persons which only extended to aliens and slaves ; from fines and justice fees, from the proceeds of confiscated property, and from tribute from allied or subject states.
THE complaint has gone up in all ages that so little agreement prevails respecting the most important and most fundamental questions of humanity. Only within our own days has the cry with respect to one of the greatest of these questions been silenced ; and although many contradictions are still current, it may yet be said that rarely at any time has a so relatively great unanimity existed concerning the theory of the world of outward phenomena as prevails just now in our scientific century.
THE average reader feels but a moderate interest in the subject of steppes, which he usually associates with roving herds and Tartar or Indian tribes, whose periodic raids have in the past been a standing source of disquiet to civilization, whether in the Occident or Orient.
IT may be well to remind those who are not familiar with statistical reasoning that a type may exhibit the influence of inheritance and yet be of no value as a basis for generalization on inheritance. The bullet type shows the influence of aim, but if we use it to test the accuracy of aim or the excellence of the rifle we may be led astray if some other influence, such as the weight of the bullet, act on all or on a majority of the shots and escape detection.
EXERCISE is not a remedy which in some mysterious way may prove beneficial in disordered conditions of the system, still less a specific in any given disease, but it may be made the means of producing gentle or powerful effects of a definite kind, which vary with its form, intensity, duration, time of application, method of administration, and the condition of the patient.
WE were on the third hour of our march, one morning; it was nearly nine o'clock, and the sun was already getting burning hot, when, turning one of the green capes which the forest sends out in the sea that washes its base, we perceived the gay tricolor flapping near a hut.
THERE is perhaps no question so perplexing to a worker in a relatively new field as that which arises with reference to his terminology. Not only must he be influenced by considerations of euphony and etymological correctness, but he must also be on his guard against using words the connotations of which would tend to lead both himself and his reader astray in their practical inferences.
WE are nearing the end of November, and the rains have come. For three mouths no more than one or two passing showers have fallen, and every tree and shrub in our gardens has done its best to accommodate itself to the changed conditions. During the rains of May, June, and July they grew rampant, the climbers extending themselves in every direction for long distances.
DURING the past summer several attempts were made to thoroughly investigate the shell heaps, kitchen middens, and graves of the islands of Santa Catalina and San Clemente, off the coast of southern California. One of these parties, organized by Mr. J. Neale Plumb, of New York, in the short time at their command made some interesting finds.
THERE is no question of greater significance for European civilization than the one which concerns the possibility of its extension over that major part of the earth which is yet the home of barbarism or savagery. The rapid increase of the Aryan populations is more and more forcing it to the forefront as a great economic problem.
IT is perhaps safe to say, without attempting to enter into the question in detail, that there has scarcely ever been a time when intelligent people have not been concerned about what their children should be taught in the schools. Leaving the attitude of bygone ages out of view, it is apparent to a careful observer that in our own time and country there is marked interest manifested in the question, What materials of instruction are of greatest value to be employed in elementary education ?
THE determination of the velocity of electricity has been the ambition of many physicists; yet at present it is generally conceded that the velocity may be anywhere from the fraction of an inch per hour to millions of miles per second. By the popular use of the words “ current of electricity ” we have grown to think of a fluid flowing through a wire, yet we do not know that there is any such fluid, and consequently we can hardly say that it has a velocity.
"IN him we lose the most accomplished bryologist which this country has produced, and it can hardly be said that he leaves behind anywhere a superior.” This is high praise, and its value is enhanced by its coming from Prof. Asa Gray, who certainly knew whereof he spoke.
PICTORIAL representation in its rudest forms not only precedes civilization but may be traced back to prehistoric man. The delineations of animals by incised lines on bones, discovered in the Dordogne and elsewhere, prove this. And certain wall-paintings found in caves variously distributed, show, in extant savage races or ancestors of them, some ability to represent things by lines and colors.
SIR: Writing of Scientific Temperance and President Jordan's thoughtful artide in your January issue, you say, "There is no denying that much the greater part of the crime and misery with which society is afflicted is caused by the use of alcohol in one form or another."
TIME was when John Stuart Mill's little book on the subject of Liberty was thought rather advanced reading. It advocated individualism—the right of every man to think his own thoughts, utter his own views, and live his own life without unnecessary control or intimidation by law or public opinion.
IN these days when many wonders are being accomplished through electricity, and greater ones are constantly expected, it is interesting to glance backward into the times when the lodestone and the sulphur globe stood for all that was known about this mysterious form of energy.
THE lack of a trustworthy and complete work on dietetics * has long been felt among medical men in this country. The dietary of a patient is of no small importance in his treatment, and Dr. Thompson, appreciating this fact, seems to have adequately supplied the want referred to.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Michigan State Agricultural College : Farmers’ Institutes, Winter, 1894-’95.—New Hampshire College: Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts; Agricultural College Extension; An Agricultural College at Home.—New York Station: Currants.
Three Blind Deaf-mutes.—Three blind deaf-mutes whose faculties have been developed from a completely latent condition are subjects of special notice in the report of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston. Edith Thomas is described as furnishing convincing testimony to the efficacy of the system which is pursued in training such children.
AMONG the singular native customs prevailing in the western division of British New Guinea, the official report mentions that of the woman making the proposal of marriage and sending for the man to visit her ; while the sister-in-law of the bride is often given in marriage in exchange, without regard to her wishes.
IN the article on The Collecting of Naval Stores, in the February Monthly, we inadvertently omitted to give credit for the cut on page 479, illustrating the French method of tapping or “ bleeding ” pine trees for their turpentine. The block was kindly placed at our disposal by the Forestry Department at Washington, to which we owe our acknowledgment.