WHEN the packet Mediator, commanded by Captain Christopher H. Champlin, sailed into New York harbor on the 28th day of August, 1838, after a stormy voyage of forty-three days from London, it brought in its hold a legacy from an Englishman to the United States of America, which was intended and destined to benefit all mankind.
WITH the close of the war a marked change speedily occurred, in the nature of discontent, in the temper of the people in respect to taxation. But this discontent at the outset was restricted almost exclusively to the so-called "internal revenue taxes," and extended in little or no degree to the war taxes imposed on imports; which last, so long as the internal revenue taxes continued to be levied upon every manufactured product, and also upon the separate constituents of such product, were not only wholly justifiable, but absolutely necessary, if the fiscal burdens of the war between the domestic producers and their foreign competitors were to be equalized.
IT was my pleasant fortune, a few years back, to have my name enrolled with a limited few in the registry book of the Royal School of Mines in London, destined for work at one of the ten or twelve tables which covered the greater part of the ground space of Prof. Huxley's laboratory.
THE importance of establishing botanical gardens—the utility of which is incontestable—in suitable spots, and particularly in its colonies, has been perceived by nearly every nation. The English, as early as 1786, planted a very fine garden at Calcutta, under the direction of Colonel Robert Hyde; and in 1821 they created the Garden of Peradeniya, near Kandy, in Ceylon.
THE famous "D3," so called because it is very near the D lines of sodium, is a bright yellow line in the spectrum of the solar chromosphere, in which it is more conspicuous than anything except the C and F lines of hydrogen. Unlike them, however, it has no corresponding dark line in the ordinary solar spectrum, a rather perplexing fact which has caused much discussion, and has not even yet found an explanation in which all authorities agree.
AMONG the exhibits at the Columbian Exposition of 1893 was a map illustrating the progress of "scientific temperance" in the United States. On this map those States of the Union in which scientific temperance was a compulsory study in the schools were shown in white.
SOME specimens recently received at the geological laboratory of the National History Museum in Paris suggest a study of the action of the wind in geology and of the importance, long overlooked, of wind deposits. The specimens are lavas from the volcano Mauna Loa, which the wind, lashing them before hardening, has reduced to fibers of extraordinary fineness.
I WANDERED last summer over that marvelous land of sunshine in our great Southwest where still fast dwindling groups of the real Americans cherish quaint customs, and linger among the superstitions of vanished centuries. And Fortune made me for a time a guest in a small tribe of these Indians, as yet almost untouched by the blighting finger of what to us is civilization.
SUGGESTIBILITY, AUTOMATISM, AND KINDRED PHENOMENA.
PROF. WILLIAM ROMAINE NEWBOLD
THERE is another deduction from the doctrine of parallelism which has been much disputed but which seems to me legitimate. I know that when I glance up from my paper, see a pen, reach out and take it, ether waves which fell upon the retina of my eye produced there chemical changes which irritated the optic nerve; the irritation was transmitted to the visual centers of the brain, thence propagated to the motor centers, and from the motor centers went an impulse which contracted the muscles of my arm.
ONE of the most interesting, perhaps also one of the most instructive, phases of child-life is the beginnings of art activity. This has been recognized by one of the best-known workers in the field of child-psychology, M. Bernard Perez, who has treated the subject in an interesting monograph.*
IN no country ought the results of the International Prison Congress, held last summer at Paris, to be received with more interest than in America, for it was an American pioneer in prison reform, the late Dr. E. C. Wines, who took the lead in organizing this series of international prison congresses.
THERE seems to be no immediate prospect of ending the contest between capital and labor. No matter how strikes or lockouts are settled, they leave a bad feeling behind them that will be shown as soon as another opportunity offers. Mutual distrust and jealousy mark the situation to-day as they have marked it for many years past.
AUTHORITIES differ as to the year in which EBENEZER EMMONS was born. The first General Catalogue of Williams College, published in 1880, puts "cet. 65," after the year of his death. In Durfee's Williams Biographical Annals the year of his birth is given as 1799, while, according to Prof. Jules Marcou, in Science, Prof. Emmons always stated to his children that he was born in 1800.
BUILDING of the kind dignified by the name architecture, can not exist during early stages of social development. Before the production of such building there must be an advance in mechanical arts greater than savages of low type have made—greater than we find among the slightly civilized.
THE reverberatory electrical furnace with movable electrodes, which we devised in 1892, and in which we have made many improvements, is very simple in construction, has been of great service, and has permitted us to deal with problems which have been hitherto insoluble.
SIR: My article entitled Has Immigration increased Population? having been sent to you two years ago, contains some observations the force of which has been greatly modified by time, and would have been omitted or expressed very differently if I had been writing now.
IT is freely alleged in various quarters, occasionally with regret but more frequently with more or less exultation, that the present is a period of intellectual reaction. Science, it is said by some, has been moving too fast and has not made good its more advanced positions.
IN three consecutive volumes of the International Education Series an abundant supply of material is furnished to the kindergartner or the mother who would use kindergarten methods.* The first consists of fifteen of Froebel’s essays which, in the original tongue, were collected into a volume by Dr. Wichard Lange.
A Device for Geological Teaching.—It is Bow six years since there was issued a small edition of an educational appliance invented by James T. B. Ives, F. G. S., and appropriately named by him the Strata Map. Since that time the inventor has made various improvements, and is now bringing out his map in a more completely satisfactory form than heretofore.
THE Belgian Astronomical Society, founded a year ago, for the advancement and popularization of that science and of meteorology, has recently become much extended. At the meetings in May, June, and July, 1895, papers were read on the history of astronomy at the time of the Renascence, by M. Doiteau; on the observation of the scintillation of the stars, by M. Vincent; on the application of the specti-oscope to the study of the constitution of Saturn’s rings, by M. Stroobant; on the theories of atmospheric circulation, by M. Marchai ; and on other subjects.
CONSIDERABLE attention has lately been given in London to the question of the spread of infectious diseases among horses through the public watering troughs. There seems good reason to believe that this is a common source of infection, especially for glanders.