XX.-FROM THE DIVINE ORACLES TO THE HIGHER CRITICISM.
IV. THE CLOSING STRUGGLE.
ANDREW DICKSON WHITE
THE storm aroused by Essays and Reviews had not yet subsided when a far more serious tempest burst upon the English theological world. In 1862 appeared a work entitled The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua Critically Examined, its author being Colenso, Anglican Bishop of Natal in South Africa.
HOW, in their rudimentary forms, the several arts which express feelings and thoughts by actions, sounds, and words, as well as the professors of such arts, originated together in a mingled state, we have seen in the last two chapters. Continuing the analysis, we have now to observe how there simultaneously arose, in the same undifferentiated germ, the rudiments of certain other products, and of those devoted to the production of them.
DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS. XIX.
JOHN G. MORSE
ONE of the most important modern additions to fire-fighting apparatus is the water tower. This invention has so greatly aided in flooding out fires that it will be no exaggeration to say that the date of its introduction marks another era in the history of fire-fighting in this country.
IN the introduction to his Animal Life as Affected by the Natural Conditions of Existence, Carl Semper wrote, in 1879: "It appears to me that of all the properties of the animal organism, Variability is that which may first and most easily be traced by exact investigation to its efficient causes; and, as it is beyond a doubt the subject around which at the present moment the strife of opinion is most violent, it is that which will be most likely to repay the trouble of closer research.
DR. DANIEL HACK TUKE, the distinguished English alienist and editor of the Journal of Mental Science, who died early in March, 1895, was a grandson of William Tuke,the founder of the York Retreat, and one of the earliest English workers in the humane treatment of the insane, and was born in York, April 19,1827.
IT is to be feared that any present attempt on the part of the physiognomist to analyze trade expressions must be somewhat unsatisfactory to the lovers of exact science. Our proved knowledge concerning the laws which govern facial expression is very slight : we are still stumbling among the elements of feature language, and it may seem presumptuous to attempt to criticise the text when the very alphabet is still doubtful.
THE efficiency of the clouds in lifting water will be brought home to us if we consider the rainfall over a garden fifty feet wide and one hundred feet in length. If one hundredth of an inch of rain occurs, about twenty-five gallons or two hundred and fifty pounds of water will have fallen.
PERHAPS there has been more hasty theorizing about the child’s moral characteristics than about any other of his attributes. The very fact that diametrically opposed views have been put forward is suggestive of this haste. By certain theologians and others, infancy has been painted in the blackest of moral colors.
WHETHER your object be to study birds as a scientist or simply as a lover of Nature, the first step is the same—you must learn to know them. This problem of identification has been given up in despair by many would-be ornithologists. We can neither pick, press, net, nor impale birds ; and here the botanist and the entomologist have a distinct advantage.
THERE are more gods than tribes among the Fijians, and it is manifestly impossible to give an account of the religions of them all within reasonable limits ; hence I take as a type the tribes inhabiting the northern and eastern portions of the island of VitiLevu, the part of the group first colonized by Fijians.
SUCH was the opinion of people who lived six thousand years ago, and all down through the succeeding ages poets have sung the praises of the luscious grape and peach, and painters have sought to outvie each other in depicting the attractions of the apple and plum, and away deep down below all this we see throughout the whole animal creation a developed instinct which teaches all to long after these beautiful fruits.
IF one should count the matches that are used daily he would arrive at an immense sum-in the milliards, at least. To supply the immense demand for the little sticks which so quickly go out in fire and flame, a great number of factories on either side of the ocean are busy with steam and noisy machines ; while we have become so indifferent that we see nothing special in the firebearing splinters, and are vexed when one of them fails, or the hissing head breaks off, or the flame goes out, leaving the wood to glimmer.
BORN at Deerfield, Mass., May 23, 1793 ; died at Amherst, Mass., February 27, 1864. The first of this family emigrated to this country in 1635, coming probably from Warwickshire in England. He was one of the original members of the New Haven, Conn., Colony. Two or three generations of the family resided in New Haven; the fourth in the line emigrated to western Massachusetts, and was an officer in the Revolutionary War.
THE result of the recent elections in Great Britain has given no little discouragement to the hopes of those who were looking to see a great increase in the socialistic element in the British House of Commons. It is clear that up to this date the British public is more interested in the definite and limited questions of so-called “ practical politics” than in the vague and general schemes put forward for the improvement of the world on the lines of socialism.
PROF. BALDWIN expresses the hope in the preface to Senses and Intellect that no book upon psychology will hereafter satisfy the requirements of higher education for more than a generation. He says that the philosophical conception of the sphere and function of psychology now prevalent is widely different from that of twenty years ago, when many of the works were written which are yet used as introduction and strong support to the philosophy taught in the universities—“ the new conception, namely, that psychology is a science of fact, its questions are questions of fact, and that the treatment of hypotheses must be as rigorous and critical as competent scientists are accustomed to demand in other departments of research.
The Red Cross.—The organization known as the Red Cross is the result of the international treaty of Geneva, and has for its object the prevention or amelioration of suffering incurred in war. All military hospitals under its flag are neutral, and can not be attacked or captured.
A PRACTICAL piece of work is reported in the bulletin of the University of Wyoming. This is a series of determinations of the heating power of fifty-four samples of Wyoming coal, six of petroleum, and two of asphalt, by Prof. Edwin E. Slosson and Prof.