IN the following paper I shall pass by the first stage of infant phonation, the babbling or singing of the first year which precedes and prepares the way for true baby-speech. A full account of this pre-linguistic articulation will be found in Preyer's well-known volume.
KAIAK hunting has many dangers. Though his father may have perished at sea, and very likely his brother and his friend as well, the Eskimo nevertheless goes quietly about his daily work, in storm no less than in calm. If the weather is too terrible, he may be chary of putting to sea ; experience has taught him that in such weather many perish; but when once he is out he goes ahead as though it were all the most indifferent thing in the world.
IN the temperate regions of the world man overcomes Nature, but in the tropics he makes little or no impression. The Indian has lived in the great forest of South America for ages, yet hardly a trace of his presence can be found. The ordinary traveler sees no sign of him for perhaps a hundred miles, and would be inclined to say that nothing but a desolate wilderness had ever existed.
THE zodiacal constellations of Gemini, Cancer, and Leo, together with their neighbors Auriga, the Lynx, Hydra, Sextans, and Coma Berenices, will furnish an abundance of occupation for our second night at the telescope. We shall begin, using our three-inch glass, with a, the chief star of Gemini (map No. 4). This is ordinarily known as Castor. Even an inexperienced eye perceives at once that it is not as bright as its neighbor Pollux, ß. Whether this fact is to be regarded as indicating that Castor was brighter than Pollux in 1603, when Bayer attached their Greek letters is still an unsettled question. Castor may or may not be a variable, but it is, at any rate, one of the most beautiful double stars in the heavens. A power of one hundred is amply sufficient to separate its components, whose magnitudes are about two and three, the distance between them being 5'8", p. 230°. A slight yet distinct tinge of green, recalling that of the Orion nebula, gives a peculiar appearance to this couple. Green is one of the rarest colors among the stars. Castor belongs to the same general spectroscopic type in which Sirius is found, but its lines of hydrogen are broader than those seen in the spectrum of the Dog Star. There is reason for thinking that it may be surrounded with a more extensive atmosphere of that gaseous metal called hydrogen than any other bright star possesses. There seems to be no doubt that the components of Castor are in revolution around their common center of gravity, although the period is uncertain, varying in different estimates all the way from two hundred and fifty to one thousand years ; the longer estimate is probably not far from the truth. There is a tenth-magnitude star, distance 73", p. 164°, which may belong to the same system.
GEOLOGY in America has advanced by steady evolution from a small beginning eighty years ago to its present proportions, where it stands as one of the great sciences of the present and of the future. The geologists of Europe founded the science of geology in the earlier years of this century, and as the tide of emigration passed across to this continent it brought with it a knowledge of science and a spirit of scientific investigation. In geology this first took systematic form in the State of New York. State after State then took up the work, and finally the Federal Government, in its western Territories. Among the men who have led in the States were William Madure, Amos Eaton, James Hall, Ebenezer Emmons, Timothy Conrad, and their associates on the New York Survey ; the brothers Rogers, and Richard Dale Owen. Jules Marcou, J. S. Newberry, and others began work in the west under the Federal Government, and following them the organizers of the first Government surveys—Clarence King, F. V. Hayden, J. W. Powell, and George M. Wheeler.
THE seeming absence of means of defense in plants, putting them in contrast—to the eye—with animals, which are bountifully and variously armed, is only apparent. A not very close examination of the behavior of plants toward animals, their great enemies, will soon satisfy one that they have many protective organs, some of them very efficacious. The spines, thorns, and prickles with which the stems and the leaves of some plants bristle are known to all, and we can hardly fail to perceive a protecting function in the aggressive defense of plants against animals and against the hand of man put forth to pluck them. In the spring, for instance, when vegetation is very little forward, the plum trees would soon disappear completely under the attacks of cattle, sheep, horses, and other foliage-loving animals, if Nature had not provided them with those long, sharp spines that make browsing of them very difficult if not impossible. The shapes of thorns are various, but may always be brought back to a protuberance broad at the base and pointed at its free end, and of an extremely hard consistence.
AT the outset of this paper I wish to define one or two terms, and my own position in using them. The expression “ the social organism ” is generally taken in a merely figurative sense, but to me it has more significance than that. I will employ it with nearly its full literal meaning.
VISITING PHYSICIAN TO THE HOSPITAL FOR CONTAGIOUS DISEASES, NEW YORK,
Ifortalily per Tliou&znd of Deaf 1~s.
SAMUEL TREAT ARMSTRONG
IT is almost seventy-four years since Bretonneau submitted to the Paris Academy of Medicine a report on croup and malignant sore throat, in which he maintained that a number of differently named diseases that were characterized by a membranous inflammation of the fauces and upper part of the air passages constituted but one specific disease, for which he proposed the name diphtheria.
BY P. J. DE RIDDER. THE credit that has been given in all ages to the spirit of observation of sailors is only justice. There are other observers, however, no less sagacious and no less assiduous than sailors, whose powers have not been so conspicuously published. These are the millers of windmills. The number of these observers is necessarily diminishing rapidly in our days in consequence of the progressive disappearance of windmills before the advance of steam mills.
NO subject in recent times has received so much attention, or been so carefully investigated, as the question of the origin and age of man. Even that large class of scholars who long since came to regard the development of man from lower forms as a closed question have persistently held that it would be extremely desirable to ascertain the full extent to which visible and indisputable evidences could be discovered and authenticated, bearing upon this particular issue of the antiquity of man in the developed form we now call a human being.
THE progress made by the experimental school of anthropology in Italy is proved by the works which are appearing in rapid succession by such men as Lombroso, Ferri, Gorofalo, Cogliolo, Sighele, and Bianchi, to mention but a few. The study of criminality and degeneration has in these later years greatly modified the juridical canon, and that which once appeared monstrous heresy is now shown to be truth ; nor, owing to the power of science, are the summary judgments any longer possible of which Dante wrote when describing Minos : “Judges and sends according as he girds him.
PRESIDENT OF THE LEDAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY.
DAVID STARE JORDAN
SOME years ago I began to collect material for biographical sketches of several of the early naturalists in America. Among these was CHARLES A. LE SUEUR, the artist, traveler, and naturalist, who was “ the first to study the ichthyology of the Great American Lakes.” Le Sueur traveled widely in Pennsylvania, New York, and New England from 1817 to 1828. He was an artist of high degree, a careful and faithful observer, and according to accounts, a man of most genial and attractive character.
MUCH as has heen written on this subject there seems still to be room for further insistence on the truth that the one living element in every system or scheme of education is science. By this we do not mean—indeed, are very far from meaning — that what is called physical science is the one useful subject of instruction ; we mean that except in so far as education is animated by the spirit of science it is dead, and, for all purposes of mental development, useless.
WOMAN’S SHARE IN PRIMITIVE CULTURE. By OTIS TUFTON MASON. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 295. Price, $1.'75. THIS is the first volume of an anthropological series under the editorial direction of Prof. Frederick Starr, of the University of Chicago; the works of which, intended to be of popular interest, will be in every case written by authorities who will keep scientific accuracy in the foreground.
most interesting sectional meetings of the British Association was one at which a series of papers was read dealing with questions connected with evolution and Darwinism, such as the real nature and cause of variation ; the inheritance of acquired characters ; the adequacy of natural selection to affect variation sufficiently to explain the great range of animal and plant structure. The first paper was by Prof.
A SotJTn JERSEY Woodmen’s Association has been formed, with headquarters at May’s Landing, N. J., the objects of which are stated to be to improve and protect the forests of the southern counties of New' Jersey ; to prevent all wanton and needless destruction of forests ; to adopt such methods of cutting as will increase and prolong the yield of timber and cordwood ; to insist upon the enforcement of the laws in relation to forests and the punishment of malicious and careless fire-setters; to encourage the planting and seeding of valuable trees on Jersey waste land and elsewhere wherever practicable ; and to encourage such methods of forest management as will tend’ to conserve and increase our water supply and protect the wild animals of the woods.