NEW CHAPTERS IN THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. XIX.—FROM CREATION TO EVOLUTION.
THEOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES OF AN EVOLUTION IN ANIMATED NATURE.
ANDREW DICKSON WHITE
WE have seen, thus far, how there came into the thinking of mankind upon the visible universe and its inhabitants the idea of a creation virtually instantaneous and complete, and the conception of a Creator in human form with human attributes, who spoke matter into existence literally by the exercise of His throat and lips, and who shaped and placed it with His hands and fingers.
NO native plant has so endeared itself to the New England heart as the mayflower. For two centuries it has been to old and young the sweetest of spring’s harbingers as it pushed its dainty blossoms through the fallen leaves beside the lingering snow.
LYING flat upon my back on my bedroom floor, with my head in the fireplace, pillowed upon the andirons, and my gaze directed intently up the chimney, I watched, hour by hour, the strange domestic doings of two of my tenants. The fireplace was so arranged, and its opening into the chimney so shaped, that I could see much of that part of the interior of the chimney which rose above me, leading toward the little patch of blue sky far away.
THIS is the only habitable high mountain peak east of the Pacific ranges. Its altitude, six thousand three hundred and thirteen feet above the sea level, tempered by its latitude, thirty-six degrees, together with its isolation from other mountains of similar height, renders it one of the most favorable places for the observation of atmospheric conditions.
LAKES are distributed very unequally over the various parts of the world, and they also differ much in their position in relation to other physical peculiarities of the surface. Most of the great continents have a considerable number of lakes, many of great size, situated on plateaus or in central basins ; while the northern parts of Europe and North America are thickly strewn with lakes of various dimensions, some on the plains, others in subalpine valleys, others again high up among the mountains, these latter being of small size and usually called tarns.
I DO not know when the intellectual life is born. If we consult our own very different and individual experiences we would reach a variety of answers. But I shall at least express the experience of a large body of people in saying that this intellectual birth begins when for the first time we apprehend the principle of causation.
NEW people are aware of the important uses to which non edible fishes can be put, and fewer still have any idea of the thousands of millions of such fishes that are to be found along the coast of the United States. What some of these uses are will be learned from the following statement of Prof. G. Brown Goode, in his article on American Menhaden in Part V of the Report of the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1887.
IN this article we propose to consider some of the peculiar features and effects of sound as we meet them in our everyday life, giving special reference to that very oft perplexing phenomenon the location of various sounds. In order that these remarks shall not extend beyond reasonable limits in our treatment of this broad subject, we shall confine them to sound effects as they originate indoors, and not so much to the origin and transmission of sounds in the atmosphere.
FOLLOWING the primitive period of tribal ethics * comes a second stage of social and moral development, which Mr. Maine calls the supersession of the bond of blood by the bond of belief. Ethnocentric attraction gives way to what might be called theocentric attraction, and a broader and more spiritual sort of association is formed, having for its basis, not consan guinity, but conformity in religious conceptions.
IT is probable that the sleep or dormant period which mollusks share in common with many other organic beings is brought on not merely by the exigencies of climate, but that it is more or less necessary in building up the wasting physical powers.
IT has been stated that if the waste products of the world had been saved they would sustain the present population for more than a hundred years. Foreign countries give more attention than America to saving the waste. But as the population of the United States increases, and as processes of manufacture are developed, discoveries are made which turn the waste of former products into useful articles of commerce.
CHEMISTRY is a modern science, constituted hardly a century ago ; but its theoretical problems were discussed and its practices put in operation during all the middle ages. The nations of antiquity were already acquainted with them, and their origin is lost in the night of primitive religions and prehistoric civilizations.
ON the 29th of July, 1893, the little village of Harpenden, in Hertfordshire, England, witnessed a rare ceremonial and was stirred by unusual emotions. The presidents of the scientific societies of England were there, with other of the most eminent men of science in the kingdom and foreigners of like standing ; while others, their peers, were represented by letters.
JUDGING by a kind of “symposium ” we saw lately in a San Francisco paper, the clergy of that city, or at least some of them, seem to think it their duty to keep a watchful eye on the utterances of the professors of science in the neighboring universities, in order that they may raise a voice of warning should anything be said that threatens to conflict with their ideas of theological orthodoxy.
THE STORY OF THE SUN. By Sir ROBERT S. BALL, F. R. S. Eleven Plates and Eightytwo Illustrations. 8vo. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 376. Price, $6. THIS great story, draped in its simple yet eloquent diction, will perchance recall to the reader’s mind some bygone evening when, by the shore of a sheltered and tranquil lake, he may have beheld reflected in its depths the crumbling glories of a nation’s ancient structure, intermingling with the pinnacles of the modern edifice, devoted to the promotion of science in its latest reaches of infinite research.
Reptilian and Amphibian Motions.—M. Marey has extended his time-photographic studies of locomotion to mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, and articulates. The processes are rather difficult, because they have to be applied to a great variety of movements, and of methods and habits of carrying them on ; but it is nearly always possible to assure satisfactory representations by adapting the methods of working to the conditions.
BOARDS for making coffins are exported in large numbers from Upper Tonkin to the province of Mongtze, in China. The trees from which they are made are not growing in the woods, but are deposited in what a French writer calls tree mines—that is, they are buried in a sandy soil at a depth of from seven to twenty-five feet, in good preservation, and some of them more than three feet in diameter.