THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS. XVII.
PROF. C. HANFORD HENDERSON
AT the beginning of the eighteenth century the glass industry was practically dead. The latter part of the century witnessed its slow revival. Some of these enterprises were short-lived; others outlasted the century. No very striking improvements were made, the most noted change being the substitution of coal for wood.
THE United States Government expends annually over twenty million dollars, mostly in the Eastern half of the country, for the improvement of its rivers, harbors, and other surface waters. The Westera half of our domain, which with the exception of the upper coast of the Pacific is known as the arid region, possesses no superabundance of surface waters to improve, but, upon the contrary, the scarcity of water for ordinary domestic and agricultural uses prevents the settlement and utilization of the remaining portion of the public lands.
WHITE SLAVES AND BOND SERVANTS IN THE PLANTATIONS.
COLONEL A. B. ELLIS
FEW but readers of old colonial state papers and records are aware that between the years 1649 and 1690 a lively trade was carried on between England and the "plantations," as the colonies were then termed, in political prisoners, who were sentenced to banishment in the former country and shipped to the colonies, where they were sold by auction to the colonists for various terms of years, sometimes for life, as slaves.
WHEN the Constitution of the United States was adopted, only one in every thirty of the people who ordained and established it were residents of cities or towns having eight thousand inhabitants or upward. There were but six such places in the entire country.
DURING the last half-century the agriculturists of the United States have constantly suffered from the attacks of two classes of organisms, which have disputed with them the possession of their crops. These organisms are, first, the noxious insects; and, second, the parasitic fungi.
PROVIDED with this universal master-key, then, we can now proceed to unlock many intricate puzzles of tree and plant worship which have hitherto baffled us. How full of meaning from our present standpoint, for example, is Mr. Turner's statement that at a certain spot in the island of Savaii there was "an old tree inland of the village, which was a place of refuge for murderers and other capital offenders!
SOME twenty-seven years ago, a number of gentlemen interested in social and philanthropic questions met together at Bielefeld, in Westphalia, to consider what could be done to alleviate the sufferings of epileptic patients, and prevent their being a burden to themselves and to their fellows.
THE philosophical evolutionist looks for the regeneration of society and the advancement of civilization by means of the voluntary action of individuals, rather than by the multiplication of state agencies. Society, to him, is not an artificial mechanism, held together by legal compulsion, but an organic growth, depending for its strength and utility upon the intelligent volition of its constituent units.
ANIMALS that lived during the past ages of the world, and now long since extinct, must have suffered, it would seem, from many injuries quite similar to those now sustained by their descendants of the present epoch. So far as the writer is aware, the discovery of the evidences of such conditions is of extremely rare occurrence, and the literature pertaining thereto practically a blank page.
ON the first day of August, 1874, the chemists of Great Britain dedicated a monument to the British discoverer of oxygen. On the same day a large number of American chemists assembled at the beautifully located village of Northumberland at the junction of the two branches of the Susquehanna River, in order also to pay homage to the memory of that remarkable theologian, philosopher, and naturalist, Joseph Priestley, who lived and died in that quiet Pennsylvanian village.
THE following account of a few of the customs common among the tribes of east central Africa, in the region of Lake Nyassa, has been gathered from many sources; most of the statements have been revised and corrected by missionaries and others who have, during the past twelve years, been resident in the lake region.
THE name of Robert Hare, said the American Journal of Science at the time of his death, "has for more than half a century been familiar to men of science as a chemical philosopher, and to the cultivators of the useful arts throughout the civilized world."
THOSE readers of the Monthly who may be interested in the subject of glacial geology will recall a brief sketch of recent glacial discovery in England published in the December number. The article included a map of the glaciated areas of Great Britain and Ireland, prepared for Prof. G. F. Wright's new book, Man and the Ice Age, by Prof. Percy F. Kendall, of Leeds, England.
THE believers in ghosts are just now jubilant over some anticipated revelations to be made through the medium of photography. In a recent number of the Fortnightly Review the Rev. H. A. Haweis has a long article under the title of Ghosts and their Photos.
THE LOST ATLANTIS, AND OTHER ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES. By Sir DANIEL WILSON. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 409. Price, $4. THIS is a posthumous work, completed in accordance with the author's desire by his daughter. It is described in his note-book as "a few carefully studied monographs, linked together by a slender thread of ethnographic relationship."
Extent of the Great World's Fairs.—In his paper before the British Society of Arts, on the coming Chicago Exhibition, Mr. James Dredge, of the Royal British Commission, presented a summary of previous World's Fairs and their results. The first great World's Fair was held in Hyde Park, London, in 1851, in a single building, 1,851 feet long and 450 feet wide.
WHITE bread and fine flour are named by Sir James Crichton Browne as one of the causes of the increase of dental caries. Failing to eat as large proportions of bran as our ancestors did, we are deprived to a large degree of the fluorine which they contain.