3. THE INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH.—Even while the question of the sphericity of the earth was undecided, another question had been suggested which the Church held to be of far greater importance. The doctrine of the earth’s sphericity naturally led to thought upon the tenants of the earth’s surface, and another ancient germ idea was warmed into life—the idea of the antipodes—of human beings on the earth’s opposite sides.
WHEN a considerable collection of the stone and bone handiwork of the Delaware Indians has been brought together, and with this material before us we picture to ourselves the people in possession of the country when first visited by the Dutch and Swedes, and afterward by the English, the thought arises that considerable importance must be given to a chance remark of Peter Kalm, who spent the winter of 1748-'49 in New Jersey—to wit: “ At the first arrival of the Swedes in this country, and long after that time, it was filled with Indians.
MY memory, unfortunately, carries me back to the fourth decade of the nineteenth century, when the evangelical flood had a little abated and the tops of certain mountains were soon to appear, chiefly in the neighborhood of Oxford ; but when, nevertheless, bibliolatry was rampant ; when church and chapel alike proclaimed, as the oracles of God, the crude assumptions of the worst informed and, in natural sequence, the most presumptuously bigoted, of all theological schools.
THE little village of Woods Holl, situated on the southern shore of Massachusetts, just where that long, sandy stretch, known as Cape Cod, begins to jut from the mainland, is one of the most important spots for biological science in the whole of America.
CERTAINLY, from a scientific point of view, no question in medicine is more important than that which relates to the causation of disease. An accurate knowledge of the specific etiological agents concerned in the production of specific infectious diseases forms the very basis of scientific medicine; and, as you all know, researches which have been made during the past thirty years have given us this accurate knowledge for a considerable number of these diseases.
IN a former article (Popular Science Monthly, April, 1892) various illustrations were given of the involuntary movements of the hand toward the object or locality to which the subject was giving his attention: whether he were counting the strokes of a metronome or the oscillations of a pendulum, reading colors or words, thinking of a building, locality, or hidden object, a very fair though variable index of the direction of his thoughts could be derived from the involuntary movements of the hand.
IN this reply to that part of Mr. Atkinson’s interesting article which affirms that any State regulation of wages or of the hours of work is necessarily an abridgment of personal liberty, and therefore vicious and unjustifiable, the writer intends to confine his attention to two propositions: (1) That the settlement of labor disputes by the State does not necessarily involve an abridgment of personal liberty; (2) that compulsory arbitration through a State tribunal is the remedy for labor disputes, strikes, and lockouts.
ONE can get little pleasure out of a science until one is tolerably familiar with its nomenclature and terminology. We should make even less than we do out of human history if we were not fairly familiar with the language in which it is written.
WHEN we consider the quantity of metal and the jars and strains to which it is subjected as railroad trains move at high speed, it becomes difficult to estimate the effects of accidents and to think of a way to evade injury. When caught between trains rapidly passing each other it is claimed that if the incautious pedestrian remain standing the result will be disastrous, and that safety is assured only by lying down.
THE use of tobacco prevails throughout the whole world. Smokers alone are numbered by hundreds of millions. A million and a quarter acres of the earth are devoted to the cultivation of the plant, and the taxes on it alone in France amount to three hundred million francs (or sixty million dollars).
A CONSIDERABLE number of mineral compounds are odorous. It is enough to mention, as illustrations of the fact, the sulphureted hydrogen odor of rotten eggs, and the scent of hydrocyanic acid which emanates from bitter almonds. Although perfumes, or pleasant smells, are organic or carbon compounds, the distinction between organic and inorganic may be considered artificial, since the principal organic bodies can be obtained by the combination of such simple mineral elements as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
"How do you pronounce quinine?" is a question that is often asked, and, unless the person appealed to is unusually dogmatic, the answer is never decisive. Webster’s International Dictionary gives three forms as being in good use—namely, kwī'nīn, kwĭ'nīn, and kwĭ'nēn; the Century Dictionary gives two of these and a fourth form, kwĭnē'n, knĭn', and kwī'nīn; while a fifth variant is found in Stormonth, which has only kwīn'īn and kwīnīn'.
THE article under the above title in your July number appears to be based on chemical theories of nutrition that find no place in the modern science of physiology. The classification of food constituents into proteids or albuminoids, fats, and carbohydrates is a convenient one for certain purposes, but it is now known that these groups of nutrients have not the specific functions that were formerly attributed to them.
WHEN we look back over the history of this country since the close of the civil war we find, on the whole, ample cause for satisfaction and encouragement. Those who look for perfection in the working of political institutions are doomed to disappointment.