“ Find out what the law of God is with regard to a man ; make that your human law, or I say it will be ill with you, and not well ! If you love your thief or murderer, if Nature and eternal Fact love him, then do as you are now doing. But if Nature and Fact do not love him ? If they have set inexorable penalties upon him, and planted natural wrath against him in every god-created human heart—then I advise you, cease, and change your HAND.”-CARLYLE.
1. THE FORM OF THE Earth.—Among various rude tribes we find survivals of a primitive idea that the earth is a flat table or disk, ceiled, domed, or canopied by the sky, and that the sky rests upon the mountains as pillars. Such a belief is entirely natural ; it conforms to the appearance of things, and hence has entered into various theologies.
NTOTHING in the external appearance of Kimberley suggests either its fame or its wealth. A straggling, hap-hazard connection of small, low dwellings, constructed almost entirely of corrugated iron or of wood, laid out with hardly any attempt at regularity, and without the slightest trace of municipal magnificence, is the home of the diamond industry.
THE Church has now a social doctrine which some Catholics assume to impose on the faith as a teaching of infallible authority. The papacy, turning toward the democracy, has presented a programme of social reform ; * and in the face of the eourtiers and of the people has declared to the age that the first article of the social reform must be a moral reform.
AVOIDING all discussion of the merits or demerits of the socalled bichloride-of-gold cure, now so prominent in the public mind, we propose to show that the use of gold as a medicine is not so novel as commonly thought ; and by extracts from early writers on chemistry and medicine to indicate the opinions held with respect to alleged tinctures of gold” at different periods during several centuries.
THE statistics of families and dwellings, as shown by a census, offer opportunities for the study of social conditions in some very important directions. The ratio of dwellings to families, the number of persons to a dwelling, and the average size of families are all facts of the highest importance in considering the condition of the people.
COMPLETE truthfulness is one of the rarest of virtues. Even those who regard themselves as absolutely truthful are daily guilty of over-statements and under-statements. Exaggeration is almost universal. The perpetual use of the word "very," where the occasion does not call for it, shows how widely diffused and confirmed is the habit of misrepresentation.
THE traveler who walks in the native quarters of the cities of India can easily study there all industries in their beginnings, as they were probably practiced in Europe in the middle ages. The shops are usually open, and the workmen can be seen inside ; textile industries, pottery, shoemaking, joinering, armoring, jewelry, confectioners—all can be observed in a single street like Chitpore Street, Calcutta.
XVI. DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS.
WITH all the uses to which leather is put, that of making boots and shoes is the most important, and calls for the greater part of the product of the tanneries of the country. It is not only the most important in point of magnitude, but it is one which has opened an unusual field for American ingenuity and invention.
MUCH has been said, largely in a theoretical way, concerning the general question of university extension. Various experiments have been made, and by another year definite plans will be matured for the popular presentation of many of the subjects that come within the scope of the extension movement as now understood by those who have had the most to do with the scheme for the education of the masses.
MICHAEL SERYETUS: REFORMER, PHYSIOLOGIST, AND MARTYR.
THE sixteenth century produced an unusually large number of famous biologists. To it belonged Andreas Yesalius, the incomparable anatomist, and his teachers, Sylvius and Winter of Andernach ; Columbus of Cremona, to whom the discovery of the pulmonary circulation of the blood was for a century and a half ascribed ; and Fallopius, Eustachius, Arantius, Fabricius of Aquapendente, and Cæsalpinus—men whose names have become familiar to every student of anatomy.
THE ROYAL SOCIETY; OR, SCIENTIFIC VISIONARIES OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
MARY DAVIES STEELE
DURINO the English Commonwealth period two little companies of natural philosophers were in the habit of meeting for study and experiments—one in London, and the other at the lodgings of Dr. Wilkins, warden of Wadham College, Oxford. At a later day these small clubs of virtuosi, as the scientists of that age were called, were united, and the society held all its sessions in London, at a tavern or private house ; and when finally it attained such dimensions that a large room was necessary, it established itself in the parlor of Gresham College.
ONE of the most striking illustrations of the value and range of man’s reasoning faculty is afforded by the substantially simultaneous calculation, on a purely mathematical basis, of the elements of the then unseen and unknown planet Neptune, and the prediction of the place in the sky where it would be found on a given day, by the Englishman Adams and the Frenchman Leverrier.
WE note with great pleasure the issue by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., of Boston, under the title of The New World, of a theological periodical which seems to us to be designed on truly progressive lines—to be, that is to say, rather an organ for the discovery of truth on all matters connected with theological belief than for the propagation or defense of the views of any particular theological school.
SOCIAL STATIC'S was Mr. Spencer’s first book. As originally issued, in 1850, it bore the title Social Statics : or, the Conditions essential to Human Happiness specified, and the First of them developed. It was put forth as, in the words of the author, “ a system of political ethics—absolute political ethics, or that which ought to be, as distinguished from relative political ethics, or that which is at present the nearest practicable approach to it.
Prof. F. W. Putnam, the distinguished anthropologist of Cambridge, Mass., has outlined a most attractive and important exhibit of anthropology at the World’s Fair. The department will occupy the northern half of the gallery of the Main Building and also a strip of land along the lagoon ; on this land groups of native American peoples will be living in their natural habitations and surroundings.
BETWEEN four and five acres have been assigned in the forthcoming World’s Columbian Exhibition to the Educational Exhibit. This is a much larger space than ever was offered before to this interest at a World’s Fair. In order that the most advantage may be derived from this large privilege, the Bureau of Education has published a circular of suggestions of details as to the arrangement of the exhibit, in order that it may be made as comprehensive as possible, and as accessible in all its parts.