BY ANDREW DICKSON WHITE, LL. D., L. H. D., EX-PRESIDENT OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. PART I. THE next great series of battles was fought regarding the relations of the earth to the heavenly bodies. In the early Church, astronomy, like other branches of science, was very generally looked upon as futile, in view of the doctrine, so prominent in the New Testament, that the earth was in its last days.
PASSING from the free to the fettered, we come to a beast which in India serves at once as an expression of wild liberty, more complete than that of the monkey, and of utter and abject slavery. For a wholly unmerited obloquy, relic of a dark aboriginal superstition, is added to the burden of toil and hard living.
Population and Area of Fifty Cities, with Distribution of Population by Square Miles and Acres.
CARROLL D. WRIGHT
THE social statistics of our great cities are being put into concrete form by Mr. Harry Tiffany, Chief of the Division of Social Statistics of Cities of the Eleventh Census, under the able direction of Dr. John S. Billings, U. S. Army, expert special agent of the census office.
OUR train has been traveling for the past twenty-four hours over that part of a transatlantic route which stretches from the Sierra Madre to the extreme borders of the great Mohave Desert. There are many interesting things to be seen along this line of travel, but nothing more striking than the curious optical phenomena presented by the pleasing alternation of vast plain with rugged mountain.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS. XIII.
THE organ is the most magnificent and comprehensive of all musical instruments. While the pipes of Pan—aside from that mythical personage—indicate a very ancient use of pipes as a means of producing musical sounds, the “water-organ of the ancients” furnishes to the student of organ history the first tangible clew regarding the remote evolution of the instrument.
FOR a long time the brain has been accepted, popularly as well as scientifically, as a gauge of intellectual capacity; less widely it has been known as an equally accurate gauge of physical and also of moral energy. If narrow compass and few and shallow convolutions in what are known as the intellectual “areas” infallibly indicate mental deficiency, the same conditions in the moral areas as infallibly indicate moral deficiency.
THE discovery of a new mammal with distinct enough characteristics to constitute the type of a new family, possibly of an order, in the class of Didelphæ or Aplacentariæ, is, at this age, a zoölogical event of great importance.
MY father, who had a color warehouse, frequently occupied himself in making some of the colors in which he dealt, and for that purpose had fitted up for himself a small laboratory to which I had access, and where I sometimes enjoyed the privilege of helping him.
COTTON is indigenous to Brazil. The oldest documents relating to that country contain many references to its existence there and to the uses made of it by the Indians at the time of the discovery. There is no indication, however, that it was then cultivated to any considerable extent by the natives.
WITHIN quite recent times we have learned that such seemingly trivial things as nursery rhymes and fairy tales are of the greatest importance in illustrating some points of the history and affinities of the human race, and also, in a less degree, in indicating the character of the ideas of our early ancestors concerning the forces and phenomena of Nature.
SIXTY years ago, the study of meteorology gained a notable impetus from the discoveries then recently made concerning the phenomena of storms. The tempestuous winds had been called to order by the investigations of Dové and Redfield, followed by those of Reid, Piddington, and others in the succeeding decades, and even the literary quarterlies contained reviews of books treating revolving gales.
Editor Popular Science Monthly: SIR: Two sentences in your Editor's Tabic of the January (1892) number excite my surprise. They are these: “Every man within certain limits is an evolutionist, and we have little hesitation in saying that the limits within which each man is an evolutionist are the real limits of his intelligence”; and “we believe—and when we say ‘we’ we mean all persons with any pretensions to education or intelligence—in evolution as applied to the physical history of our globe.”
ONE of the most serious questions of the present day is as to where and how adequate moral instruction is to be imparted to the rising generation. In the olden time there was no question as to the full responsibility of the home aided by the Church for the moral training of the child.
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL, 1872—'78. By the MARCHIONESS OF DUFFERIN AND AVA. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 456. $2. THE Journal consists of extracts from letters written home to the author's mother while Lord Dufferin was Governor-General of Canada.
A Defense of Examinations.—Examinations are defended by W. H. Maxwell, in a paper which he read before the National Education Association at its meeting in 1890. To the question, “Is examination one of the means that occasion those mental activities which result in knowledge, power, and skill?”
THE Electrical Engineer begins the new year with the publication of the first of a series of articles on the electrical and magnetic discoveries of Prof. Joseph Henry, by his daughter, Miss Mary A. Henry, of Washington, with notes by Mr. Franklin Leonard Pope.