THERE are others besides Herbert Spencer who discern socialism as the end or logical outcome of certain tendencies which now prevail or which are thought to prevail ; and, as all prophecies in modern times must be based on what we know of existing tendencies, supplemented by what history tells us of the course of similar tendencies in the past, it is a matter of importance to know how far such tendencies do really exist, and, if they do, to gauge, if possible, their probable momentum, and to judge whether they are likely to be permanent or passing, because confident prophecies have been hazarded on the strength of certain tendencies, while at the very moment of the prophecy a countertendency was setting in.ϯ
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS.
IV.IRON-WORKINGWITH MACHINE TOOLS.
WHILE the builders and operators of blast-furnaces were achieving such splendid results as have been described, the owners, managers, and engineers of rolling-mills were not idle. At the very beginning of rolling-mill construction in America the disposition to make improvements in known methods and to invent entirely new mechanisms and processes was promptly manifested.
WHEN atrabilarious Hamlet, in his choleric interview with his mother in the cabinet, impudently advised her to “Assume a virtue if you have it not,” he unwittingly laid down a general-conduct rule of high value to individuals and the community.
"ARE you interested in sisal ? What do you think of it ? ” These were the questions addressed to the writer almost before he had landed in the Bahamas. The object of the writer’s visit to the “ land of the pink pearl ” was to make a collection of its plants and animals ; but, during the pleasant six months occupied in so doing, he had many opportunities of observing the cultivation of the “ sisal hemp."
GENTLEMEN : This demonstration is given at the request of my friend Dr. Koch, who desires that in London and elsewhere his method of treating tuberculosis should, so far as is at present practicable, be open to the inspection of the medical profession.
THE duties of the individual to society, particularly in the crowded centers of the world, become every day more numerous and burdensome. Thousands of bulky volumes do not suffice to contain the common law, the codes, and the countless decisions under the same on this subject.
SALUTATIONS WITHOUT contact.—The salutation now most prevalent among civilized people is the bow. That, in its abbreviated form, consists in a forward inclination of the head, sometimes accentuated by a corresponding motion of the arms, as in the salam, sometimes deepened by the depression of the upper part of the body.
IT is a matter of common observation that a hot body continually gives off its heat to things around it, until at length the giver and the receivers all come to a common temperature. This gradual equalization may be brought about in three different ways : In the first place, heat is thrown off in every possible direction from every point of a heated body by what we call radiation.
SIR SPENCER ST.JOHN’S book Hayti, or the Black Republic, brought prominently before the English-speaking peoples of the Old and New Worlds the subject of the so-called vaudoux or voodoo worship which prevails in the island of Hayti-Santo Domingo ; and the numerous articles published from time to time by Mr. G. W. Cable in Harper’s and the Century Magazines have shown us what the “ voodoo-worship ” in Louisiana is like ; but, as neither of these two authors has, apparently, had any personal acquaintance with that part of the west coast of Africa from which vÕdu is derived, they have, very naturally, been unable to more than describe it as they found it on this side of the Atlantic.
IN The Popular Science Monthly of June, 1890, page 253, there appeared an article entitled Natural and Artificial Cements, by Prof. La Roy F. Griffin, in which theories were advanced in regard to the setting of cement which are at variance with the chemical reactions that are known to take place.
THE object of the acclimatation of animals and plants is to add to the species, races, and varieties of a country species, races, and varieties of other countries that may be useful or simply agreeable to it, whether they be represented in the wild or the domesticated state.
WHETHER the author just quoted knowingly or intentionally referred to the societies of the lower animals, as well as to those of mankind, I am not aware. Perhaps, if he had no such intentions, his testimony may be regarded as all the more valuable.
THE International Congress of Americanists was formed at Nancy, in France, in 1875, for the historical, archæological, ethnographical, and linguistic study of the two Americas. Its subsequent meetings have been held successively at Luxemburg, Copenhagen, Madrid, Turin, Brussels, and Berlin.
THE name and fame of Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill have, in the absence of a complete biography, become to a considerable extent a tradition, known to few except students ; yet, during the first quarter of this century, he was one of the most conspicuous figures in the literary and scientific life of the United States.
SIR : Mr. Barr Ferree’s articles on modern architecture, in the June and December numbers of the Monthly, are interesting as giving an outside view of the present condition of that profession ; but the writer fails to discriminate between past performance and present tendency, between evils in the ascendency and evils on the decline.
THE crusade for the higher education of women that is now going on seems to have two chief impelling forces. One is the necessity for a growing number of the sex to provide for their own support ; the second is the weariness of being idle that is afflicting another class of women.
THE American edition of this great descriptive work, by the eminent French geographer Reclus, has now reached the section devoted to North America. This division will probably require four volumes, the first of which is now before us. A chapter sketching the early discoveries in the New World and the chief features of the Western Continent introduces the volume.
White-fish in Lake Ontario.—A number of citizens of Rochester are endeavoring to interest the people of the State of New York in stocking Lake Ontario with white-fish. The lake once afforded abundance of this sweet and juicy fish, as Lake Erie does still, but they have now become scarce in it.
THE conclusions expressed by Prof. Key, in the November number of the Monthly, respecting periods of growth in school children, seem to be confirmed by the measurements of Dr. Henry P. Bowditch in the schools of Boston. From these measurements, Dr. Bowditch observed in the National Academy of Sciences, it was shown that the big boys and girls get their growth earlier in life than the small boys and girls.