IN the first part of this article we saw the steps by which the sacred theory of human language had been developed ; how it had been strengthened in every land until it seemed to bid defiance forever to secular thought ; how it rested firmly upon the letter of Scripture, upon the explicit declarations of leading fathers of the Church, of the great doctors of the middle ages, of the most eminent theological scholars down to the beginning of the eighteenth century, and was guarded by the decrees of popes, bishops, Catholic and Protestant, kings, and the whole hierarchy of authorities in church and state.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SINCE COLUMBUS.
III. IRON-SMELTING BY MODERN METHODS.
WILLIAM F. DURFEE
THUS far in these papers we have dealt only with iron smelted by charcoal, and, in fact, up to the year 1830, there had been no attempt whatever to utilize either anthracite or bituminous coal for the purpose. In regard to the use of mineral coal Swank quotes as follows from a letter dated March 18, 1825, from the acting committee of the Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Internal Improvements to William Strikeland, who was its European agent: “ No improvements have been made here in it [the manufacture of iron] within the last thirty years, and the use of bituminous and anthracite coal in our furnaces is absolutely and entirely unknown. Attempts, and of the most costly kind, have been made to use the coal of the western part of our State in the production of iron.
THE high aim of science should be, definitely, the physical and moral perfectioning of man. The exercise of the cerebral functions of all ought undoubtedly to be directed from infancy by educators. It is generally agreed that physical education is a necessity of hygiene, but it is not clear to every one that physical education should be subjected to rules and to a precise directing.
VERBAL salutations have generally been employed to explain those expressed by gesture and posture. The study of ancient literature and of modern travel has furnished many friendly phrases of anthropologic and ethnic interest. But friendly greetings were common before articulate speech prevailed.
THE progress recently made in tracing the interdependent relations of living organisms is clearing np some of the obscure problems in the nutrition of plants that have a direct bearing on the processes of evolution and the applications of science in agriculture.
AT the present time, four great separate bodies of water, the Black Sea, the Caspian, the Sea of Aral, and Lake Balkash, occupy the southern end of the vast plains which extend from the Arctic Sea to the highlands of the Balkan Peninsula, of Asia Minor, of Persia, of Afghanistan, and of the high plateaus of central Asia as far as the Altai.
THERE are two processes constantly active upon the surface of the earth which are of the utmost importance as regards its suitability for human habitation—the storage of heat and the storage of cold. Of these we are here concerned only with the latter.
THERE is a sturdy freedom in the Swiss character which is admirable in American eyes, and which seems to make the people grow naturally and easily into conditions closely approaching our own ideals. The soil is not so deep, to be sure, nor so rich, as it might be but for circumstances which the Swiss himself already sees and is taking measures to modify.
IN a former paper, on the Taouist Religion, it was the purpose of the writer not to dwell upon the strictly historical features of the subject. That has been done by others, whose conclusions are recorded in books and encyclopaedias which may be consulted. But the object aimed at was to give as true a picture as possible, in small space, of the practical workings of the system at the present time.
THE Shetland pony has been invested with a halo of romance somewhat out of keeping with the prosaic surroundings of its native home; and this, apparently, from a very early date, for we chanced to read not long ago that, traditionally, “the Shetland pony was carried from the Caucasian range, by ancient worshipers of Odin, to Scandinavia, thence to Shetland ”—in which tradition we discern a trace of humor, if nothing more, as, considering the size of some of these animals, they are much more fitted to be “ carried ” than to transport any one, whether from the Caucasus or elsewhere.
THE romantic incidents of M. Houzeau’s career in the United States must invest his story with a living and lasting interest to all Americans. His scientific record is no less remarkable. In versatility, variety of studies, industry, productiveness, and originality he has been surpassed by few men of science.
MR. APPLETON MORGAN’S query, in the Monthly for December, What shall we do with the “ Dago ” ? suggests many other questions. I presume the writer did not design that his description of the “dago” should be regarded as typical of the Italian people, or of any considerable part of them, but only intended it to apply to a peculiar variety of the dangerous classes that happens to come from Italy ; but his paper is, unfortunately, liable to the former offensive interpretation, and has, I happen to know, been taken in that sense in at least one quarter.
FOR good or for evil, education is now very generally regarded as a function of the state, and has, in point of fact, been assumed by the state to such an extent that private enterprise in the matter of education is reduced to an altogether secondary rôle.
OUTINGS AT ODD TIMES. By CHARLES C. ABBOTT, M. D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 282. Price, $1.50. IT is a pleasant task to review one of Dr. Abbott’s books. The contrast implied in the title of his preface to this volume— “Nature and Books about it”—is reduced to the lowest point in his writings. The genial doctor has a happy faculty for transferring the charm of Nature to the printed page, that is the more valuable for its rarity.
Pasteur Institute, Hew York.—From the opening of the New York Pasteur Institute, February 18, 1890, till October 15th, 610 persons that had been bitten by dogs or cats presented themselves to be treated. For 480 of these patients it was demonstrated that the animals which attacked them were not mad.
IN reference to a note in the Monthly for December, 1890, ascribing to Dr. Charles M. Cresson the discovery of typhoid bacillus in juices squeezed from celery, Dr. Cresson desires to observe that the only publication he has made in reference to the bacillus of typhoid in connection with celery, bore upon the practice of certain truck - farmers of ladling upon the plants, for manure, untreated night-soil directly from the carts.