ACCORDING to the English theory and practice of representative government, from which our own methods have been derived (subject, however, to some variations of doubtful expediency), it is the function of a Minister of Finance, named in this country Secretary of the Treasury, to prepare a budget or estimate of income and expenditures.
Imports of Merchandise subdivided into Groups or Classes according to Degree of Manufacture and Uses. In the following tables the extended classification for imports entered for consumption, embracing over a thousand articles and classes of articles, which is mainly an alphabetical arrangement with two grand subdivisions of free and dutiable articles, has been subdivided into the five following general groups or classes, according to the degree of manufacture and uses of the articles imported.
PRESIDENT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.
G. G. GROFF.
THE suggestions offered in this paper are derived from the experience of the past summer at Johnstown, Pa., and in the other flooded regions of the State, where a large share of the organization of the sanitary measures fell to the writer. Although one ninth of the inhabitants of the devastated district perished and were buried in the debris, along with thousands of domestic animals ; and although typhoid fever, measles, and diphtheria existed in the district before the calamity, they never spread to any great extent, and certainly never became epidemic.
FROM the time of its discovery by Grijalva in 1534 until 1697, a number of fruitless attempts had been made by the Mexican authorities to colonize the peninsula of Lower California, and no small amount of treasure had been wasted in the efforts.
A BOOK on mental over-pressure has been written by Madame Manacéine for the protection of the men who are to follow us. A continuance of the kind of life that is now led in the great centers of civilization will involve the risk of compromising the lot of future generations. We are going blindly, groping, toward a new humanity, to issue from us, of which we can not predict the character.
THE idea of a place for the punishment after death of wicked men is found in most, though not all, of the religions of the present time and of antiquity. According to some beliefs, the punishment is to last forever ; according to others, the torments are to continue only for a time, and are to result in purifying the imprisoned souls and fitting them for heaven.
SOME discoveries have very recently been made in the starry heavens which must be regarded, not only in what they are of themselves, but also on account of the way in which they were made, as among the most interesting of scientific events. It seems, in fact, like a contradiction to say that astronomers in Europe and America have been able to determine the velocity of motion, size, and weight of stars that are not visible in any telescope, and which no telescope to be made in the future, no matter how great its power may be, will be able to show.
I was lately called to examine a specially interesting problem in geographical distribution, that of the dispersion of fishes in the Yellowstone Park. This region is a high volcanic plateau, formed by the filling of a mountain basin with a vast deposit of lava.
ON the 22d of February, 1887, Prof. David Ferrier delivered an address in this room on the question, “ How far recent investigations on the functional topography of the brain could be brought in relation with craniological and anthropological researches with a view to establish the foundation of a scientific phrenology.
ONCE, for ten summer days, I had the pleasure of entertaining a strange and most interesting guest, known among the learned as the Mantis religiosa ; but the more familiar appellation of devil’s-riding-horse, by which he is designated amid his native haunts, seems so appropriate to his demoniacal oddity that the creature might be recognized thereby on sight, without description.
COLOR, as such, is not necessarily of any value to an organism. Organic substances frequently possess a chemical and physical structure which causes certain light-waves to be absorbed ; or, the elements of tissues may be so arranged that light is scattered, or interference colors are produced.
THUNDER-STORMS naturally attract universal attention when they occur, and it may perhaps be of interest to point out some particulars that have been ascertained about them. The most obvious facts are that a heavy cloud passes over the observer, and that from it lightning appears, followed, after a greater or less interval, by thunder ; and that usually heavy rain or hail falls from the cloud.
IN examining the personal records of men who have contributed to the advancement of human knowledge, one of the features most frequently noticed is the necessity to meet adversity in early life. Perhaps it is but little less frequently the case that they are compelled throughout life to content themselves with a minimum of pecuniary reward for the mental work which meets due appreciation only after its final close.
Editor Popular Science Monthly : SIR : In the May (1890) number of the Monthly Dr. W. A. Hammond, in his article on Sumptuary Laws, makes statements with reference to the prohibitory liquor laws of Iowa which are not only misleading but incorrect.
AS we had occasion not long ago to remark, the philosophy of evolution is a great stumbling-block and rock of offense to transcendentalists— that is to say, to people who want a philosophy founded on emotion and soaring beyond all experience into the region of the absolute.
THE assertion of Prof. Le Conte, which furnished the motive, as the author avers, for this book, that we are on the eve of the greatest change in traditional views that has taken place since the birth of Christianity— a change involving a reconstruction of Christian theology—is verified by events which have taken place during the current year in the official centers of the most orthodox Protestant bodies.
Instruetion by Experimental Methods.— As represented by Prof. J. F. Woodhull to the American Institute of Instruction, the New York College for the Training of Teachers has model classes of pupils in all grades to which apprentice teachers are assigned at stated hours to give experimental instruction in science.
A CORRECTION.—By a slip of the pen which also escaped notice in the proof-reading, Prof. Weismann is made to say twice in the second paragraph of page 357 of our July number “ cerebellum ” where “ cerebrum ” was intended. Read—“ if, again, we were able to remove all the other parts of the cerebrum,” etc., and “ with the rest of the cerebrum was taken, etc.