ANY practical scheme of railroad control is likely to be based upon a compromise. The different interests involved are so conflicting that it will not do to attempt a solution from any one standpoint exclusively. The direction which legislation is to take can not be decided by a mere consideration of complaints against the existing system, whether well-grounded or otherwise.
THE Spanish rule over Mexico lasted for just three hundred years, or from 1521 to 1821 ; and, during the whole of this long period, the open and avowed policy of Spain was, to regard the country as an instrumentality for the promotion of her own interests and aggrandizement exclusively, and to utterly and contemptuously disregard the desires and interests of the Mexican people.
IT has been long disputed whether the moral faculty is innate and instinctive, or whether it is the result of experience and education. The probability is that it is partly the one and partly the other. The child shows from an early period a disposition to submit to others’ authority, and this moral instinct may not improbably be the transmitted result of the social experience and moral training of many generations of ancestors.
THE first edition of Alphonse de Candolle’s “ History of the Sciences and of Scientific Men during two Centuries,” * which was published in 1873, was speedily exhausted, and the book became, as the author says, a rarity in the library catalogues.
CRYSTALS are symmetrical forms bounded by plane surfaces. A surface is said to be plane or level when its nature is such as is exemplified in a sheet of water extending over dimensions very small when compared to the radius of the earth. Crystals occur abundantly ; they are generally diminutive and frequently microscopic in size, and therefore readily escape ordinary observation.
THE growth of a thing is effected by the joint operation of certain forces on certain materials; and when it dwindles, there is either a lack of some materials, or the forces co-operate in a way different from that which produces growth. If a structure has varied, the implication is that the processes which built it up were made unlike the parallel processes in other cases, by the greater or less amount of some one or more of the matters or actions concerned.
MAN, like any other animal, is so much the creature of his food— his physical perfection, his intellectual activity, and his moral tone are so dependent on the food he receives and the uses he is able to make of it in the processes of digestion and assimilation—that any accurate knowledge, founded on precise and reliable methods of investigation, of the influence on digestion and nutrition of dietetic habits must of necessity be of the most general interest.
UNDOUBTEDLY one of the greatest achievements of modern days is the introduction of the exceedingly sensitive dry-plate in photography. By it one is enabled to picture the lightning’s flash, the trotting horse, the surging wave, and the foliage swayed by the breeze.
WHATEVER may be our individual views or prejudices in relation to the use and abuse of alcoholic liquors, the process of their manufacture is a very interesting chemical operation. Proof-spirit is defined by the United States internal revenue laws to be that mixture of alcohol and water which contains one half of its volume of absolute alcohol and 53.71 parts of water.
AMONG the most curious apparent inconsistencies of human nature is the possibly complete independence of the productive and the conservative states of mind. It seems as if the talent for producing things often led, of itself, to a carelessness about their preservation, perhaps from a feeling that it is easy to replace what may happen to be deteriorated.
EVEN if the study of words, as it is carried on by the method of the natural sciences, did not furnish evidence that all language is traceable back to primordial monosyllabic elements, observation of the language-processes in children would lead to that conclusion.
"ONCE upon a time,” says that delicious creation of Lewis Carroll’s, the Mock Turtle, “I was a real turtle!” Once upon a time, the modern sole might with greater truth plaintively observe, I was a very respectable sort of a young codfish. In those happy days, my head was not unsymmetrically twisted and distracted all on one side; my mouth did not open laterally instead of vertically; my two eyes were not incongruously congregated on the right half of my distorted visage; and my whole body was not arrayed, like a Portland convict’s, in a party-colored suit, dark-brown on the right and fleshy-white on the left department of my unfortunate person.
A SKETCH of Francis Galton may appear with manifest fitness in the same number of the “Monthly” in which is published an abstract review of M. de Candolle’s researches into heredity and the other conditions favorable to the production of men of science.
PROFESSOR MÖBIUS says, in “The Popular Science Monthly" for December, that “flying-fish are incapable of flying, for the simple reason that the muscles of their pectoral fins are not large enough to bear the weight of their body aloft in the air.”
AN apostle once wrote, “Let love be without dissimulation.” Had he lived in our day, he might have thought it quite as important to say, “Let love be without sentimentality.” In looking over the reports of charitable institutions—especially purely voluntary ones—we are frequently struck by the utter absence of any attempt to deal in what might be called a scientific manner with the facts that come within their scope.
No story of tragic adventure has ever excited greater interest or invoked stronger sympathy than that of the life and sufferings of Lieutenant Greely and his party of twenty-four men at Cape Sabine during the winter of 1883-84. Other parties have suffered intense privations and pains, in the Arctic regions and other inhospitable parts of the globe; but, as a rule, there have been features of some kind to set off and relieve the uniformity of their misery, or else, all having perished, the world has escaped the sorrow of viewing the picture of their suffering in photographic detail.
Pennsylvania Boroughs. By William P. Holcombe. Baltimore : N. Murray. Pp. 51. 50 cents. Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington. Vol. VIII, 1885. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 110. 75 cents. Forests and Fruit-Growers. By Abbot Kinney, Los Angeles, California. Pp. 5.
Glacial Elevations of the New England Coast.—Professor N. S. Shaler, in the course of his studies to investigate the origin of kames or “Indian ridges,” which are particularly abundant and characteristic along the New England sea-coast south of Portland, Maine, has been led to the conclusion that the glacial submergence along this coast was much greater than is commonly assumed.
A REPRODUCTION in phototype of seventeen pages of a Syriac manuscript, containing the epistles known as the “Antilegomena,” is to be published by the Johns Hopkins University, under the editorial supervision of Professor Isaac H. Hall.
PROFESSOR JOHN L. CAMPBELL, of the chair of Geology and Chemistry in Washington and Lee University, died at Lexington, Virginia, February 2d, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. He had been a professor at Lexington since 1851. He was the author of contributions on “Virginian Geology in American Science,” his last paper having been a review of the geological reports of Professor W. B. Rogers.