SHORTLY after the demonstrations of Professor Holmgren, in Sweden, of the dangers in transportation to persons and property on land and sea from color-blindness, the writer called the attention of the officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad to the subject ; and, at the request of the president, Mr. Thomas A. Scott, and the vice-president, Mr. Frank Thomson, he undertook to solve the problem of eliminating these dangerous men from their service.
WHEN I was a little boy, I sometimes went for the bread to a short distance from the house. The baker would take my tally-stick, put it alongside of his, and cut a notch in both. Then I would go away with my bread and the baker’s account on the tallystick.
THE establishment of a School of Science and Arts at the capital of the nation, through the munificence of Washington’s venerable philanthropist, is a landmark in the progress of culture and the history of education, and shows that the demands of modern culture are fully recognized.
"THE Destiny of Man viewed in the Light of his Origin" is the important and interesting subject to which Professor Fiske devotes the last work that has issued from his pen. It is as true to-day as it was in the days of that Northumbrian king whose reason for hearing the Christian missionaries has so often been cited with approval, that men have a longing to know what may lie beyond the portal of death which closes so solemnly and, as it would seem, mysteriously upon all the activities of life.
WHEN a man and a bear meet together casually in an American forest, it makes a great deal of difference, to the two parties concerned at least, whether the bear eats the man or the man eats the bear. We haven’t the slightest difficulty in deciding afterward which of the two, in each particular case, has been the eater, and which the eaten.
THE following notes relate exclusively to native sulphur (brimstone). Though the amount of sulphur annually mined in the form of sulphides of various metals (e. g., iron and copper pyrites, galena, blende, etc.) probably far exceeds that obtained in the uncombined state, still, the separation of the sulphur in an inoxidized condition from such compounds is never attempted, for the simple reasons that, in the processes for extracting the several metals from their ores, the first step necessary is the elimination of the combined sulphur, which is most easily effected by a roasting or oxidizing operation, whereby the sulphur is at once converted into sulphurous acid, itself a valuable commodity, and, moreover, capable of being readily oxidized one step further to form sulphuric acid, the chief purpose for which sulphur is consumed.
AN eminent French writer has said, “ When you educate a boy, you perhaps educate a man ; but, when you educate a girl, you are laying the foundation for the education of a family.” He might have added that to this end the physical training was of equal importance with the mental.
THE field experiment is both the oldest, the most common, and the most popular form of agricultural experiment. So soon as agriculture passed beyond the rudest and most primitive stages, the idea of testing the value of different manures, or of different modes of culture and treatment, or of divers kinds or varieties of plants by means of comparative trials on adjacent plots of ground, must have suggested itself, and so the agricultural field experiment was initiated.
CHOLERA is an infectious disease. By infectious diseases are meant those diseases which are caused by the reception from without of specific infective material into healthy bodies, which material acts like a poison. To the list of infectious disorders belong such different maladies as small-pox and intermittent fever.
THE paternal tenderness with which wine is regarded, both by its producers and consumers, is amusing. They speak of it as being “sick,” describe its “ diseases ” and their remedies as though it were a sentient being ; and its diseases, like our own, are now attributed to bacilli, bacteria, or other microbia.
THE operations of benefit societies ought to provide a fruitful field for investigation by the student of vital statistics. These organizations, embracing a very large membership, deal practically with the accidents of sickness and of death, and can be made to supply valuable data.
IT has been said that, without the sea, civilization could not have been developed, and the world would have continued barbarous. That element, from the primitive times of mankind, has brought together the peoples of the most distant countries, and inspired the ancients with the idea of the Infinite.
I HAVE long been an interested observer of bird-life. The situation of my house and garden, on the terrace-slopes of the Spielberg, affords me favorable opportunities for studying the habits of the feathered tribes. They build their nests in my garden, and lend themselves with great docility to the purposes of the friendly spectator of their movements.
THE contributions of Sir David Brewster to the progress of science were principally connected with his researches in optical properties and phenomena ; and many of his discoveries in this line were almost immediately turned to practical use.
IN reading the interesting article by Grant Allen on “Queer Flowers,” in the December number of this “Monthly,” I observe some statements concerning the fig which observation here in California, where the tree is very common and grows luxuriantly, does not confirm.
THIS is the title of an article contributed by Mr. Lester F. Ward to the quarterly periodical “Mind.” Mr. Ward, as is well known, is the author of “Dynamic Sociology,” which contains an elaborate attack, with all the weapons of science and philosophy, upon the doctrine of laissez faire, as it is termed, or the policy of meddling less, and leaving things social more to their own natural courses.
PROBABLY the ablest systematic work produced by the modern English school of political economy is the comprehensive treatise of John Stuart Mill. It has been a good deal used in the colleges, but is in several respects imperfect as a text-book.
The Loss of the Lapham Collection. —One of the most serious losses in the recent fire at the Wisconsin State University was the scientific collection made by Dr. I. A. Lapham, and purchased after his death by the State. It consisted of a cabinet containing fossils, minerals, shells, meteorites, and Indian antiquities, 10,000 specimens in all, besides duplicates for exchange; an herbarium of 24,000 specimens, belonging to 8,000 species ; and a library of about 1,500 books, pamphlets, and maps.
THE Italian Alpine Club is laboring to reafforest the mountains of the peninsula, and is having a measurable degree of success. In 1882 it had made plantations of greater or less extent, which were thriving, on the Piano del Re, near the sources of the Po ; on Lake Como and Lago Maggiore.
ARTHUR HENNINGER, a French chemist of German birth, died October 4th, in the thirty-fifth year of his age. He studied and labored with Wurtz, and was distinguished for his experiments in the reduction of the polyatomic alcohols, and particularly of erythrite, by formic acid.