Issue: 18850201

Sunday, February 1, 1885
FEBRUARY, 1885
4
True
26
Thursday, October 30, 2014

Articles
cover
432
432,433
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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
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433
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THE SIGHT AND HEARING OF RAILWAY EMPLOYÉS.*
WEST JERSEY RAILROAD COMPANY.
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WILLIAM THOMSON
SHORTLY after the demonstrations of Professor Holmgren, in Sweden, of the dangers in transportation to persons and property on land and sea from color-blindness, the writer called the attention of the officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad to the subject ; and, at the request of the president, Mr. Thomas A. Scott, and the vice-president, Mr. Frank Thomson, he undertook to solve the problem of eliminating these dangerous men from their service.
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441
441,442,443,444,445,446,447,448,449,450,451,452
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CALCULATING-MACHINES.
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M. EDOUARD LUCAS
WHEN I was a little boy, I sometimes went for the bread to a short distance from the house. The baker would take my tally-stick, put it alongside of his, and cut a notch in both. Then I would go away with my bread and the baker’s account on the tallystick.
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452
452,453,454,455,456
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THE LARGER IMPORT OF SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION.*
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J. W. POWELL
THE establishment of a School of Science and Arts at the capital of the nation, through the munificence of Washington’s venerable philanthropist, is a landmark in the progress of culture and the history of education, and shows that the demands of modern culture are fully recognized.
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456
456,457,458,459,460,461,462,463,464,465,466,467,468
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EVOLUTION AND THE DESTINY OF MAN.
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W. D. LE SUEUR
"THE Destiny of Man viewed in the Light of his Origin" is the important and interesting subject to which Professor Fiske devotes the last work that has issued from his pen. It is as true to-day as it was in the days of that Northumbrian king whose reason for hearing the Christian missionaries has so often been cited with approval, that men have a longing to know what may lie beyond the portal of death which closes so solemnly and, as it would seem, mysteriously upon all the activities of life.
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article
468
468,469,470,471,472,473,474,475,476,477,478,479,480,481,482
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FOOD AND FEEDING.
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GRANT ALLEN
WHEN a man and a bear meet together casually in an American forest, it makes a great deal of difference, to the two parties concerned at least, whether the bear eats the man or the man eats the bear. We haven’t the slightest difficulty in deciding afterward which of the two, in each particular case, has been the eater, and which the eaten.
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482
482,483,484,485,486,487,488,489,490,491,492,493,494,495
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SULPHUR AND ITS EXTRACTION.
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C. G. WARNFORD LOCK
THE following notes relate exclusively to native sulphur (brimstone). Though the amount of sulphur annually mined in the form of sulphides of various metals (e. g., iron and copper pyrites, galena, blende, etc.) probably far exceeds that obtained in the uncombined state, still, the separation of the sulphur in an inoxidized condition from such compounds is never attempted, for the simple reasons that, in the processes for extracting the several metals from their ores, the first step necessary is the elimination of the combined sulphur, which is most easily effected by a roasting or oxidizing operation, whereby the sulphur is at once converted into sulphurous acid, itself a valuable commodity, and, moreover, capable of being readily oxidized one step further to form sulphuric acid, the chief purpose for which sulphur is consumed.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0007.xml
article
495
495,496,497,498
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PHYSICAL TRAINING OF GIRLS.
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LUCY M. HALL
AN eminent French writer has said, “ When you educate a boy, you perhaps educate a man ; but, when you educate a girl, you are laying the foundation for the education of a family.” He might have added that to this end the physical training was of equal importance with the mental.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0008.xml
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498
498,499,500,501,502,503
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FIELD EXPERIMENTS IN AGRICULTURE.
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H. P. ARMSBY
THE field experiment is both the oldest, the most common, and the most popular form of agricultural experiment. So soon as agriculture passed beyond the rudest and most primitive stages, the idea of testing the value of different manures, or of different modes of culture and treatment, or of divers kinds or varieties of plants by means of comparative trials on adjacent plots of ground, must have suggested itself, and so the agricultural field experiment was initiated.
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503
503,504,505,506,507,508,509,510,511,512,513,514,515,516
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CHOLERA.*
I. ITS HOME AND ITS TRAVELS.
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DR. MAX VON PETTENKOFER
CHOLERA is an infectious disease. By infectious diseases are meant those diseases which are caused by the reception from without of specific infective material into healthy bodies, which material acts like a poison. To the list of infectious disorders belong such different maladies as small-pox and intermittent fever.
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517
517,518,519,520,521,522,523,524
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THE CHEMISTRY OF COOKERY.
XLIV.—THE COOKERY OF WINE (continued).
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W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS
THE paternal tenderness with which wine is regarded, both by its producers and consumers, is amusing. They speak of it as being “sick,” describe its “ diseases ” and their remedies as though it were a sentient being ; and its diseases, like our own, are now attributed to bacilli, bacteria, or other microbia.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0011.xml
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524
524,525,526,527,528,529
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SICK-RATES AND DEATH-RATES.
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CL. T. CAMPBELL
THE operations of benefit societies ought to provide a fruitful field for investigation by the student of vital statistics. These organizations, embracing a very large membership, deal practically with the accidents of sickness and of death, and can be made to supply valuable data.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0012.xml
article
529
529,530,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,540,541
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PROPERTIES AND CONSTITUTION OF SEA-WATER.
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M. ANTOINE DE SAPORTA
IT has been said that, without the sea, civilization could not have been developed, and the world would have continued barbarous. That element, from the primitive times of mankind, has brought together the peoples of the most distant countries, and inspired the ancients with the idea of the Infinite.
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541
541,542,543,544,545,546
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WHY BIRDS SING.
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DR. B. PLACZEK
I HAVE long been an interested observer of bird-life. The situation of my house and garden, on the terrace-slopes of the Spielberg, affords me favorable opportunities for studying the habits of the feathered tribes. They build their nests in my garden, and lend themselves with great docility to the purposes of the friendly spectator of their movements.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0014.xml
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546
546,547,548,549,550,551,552
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SKETCH OF SIR DAVID BREWSTER.
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THE contributions of Sir David Brewster to the progress of science were principally connected with his researches in optical properties and phenomena ; and many of his discoveries in this line were almost immediately turned to practical use.
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553
553,554
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CORRESPONDENCE.
"QUEER FLOWERS."
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IN reading the interesting article by Grant Allen on “Queer Flowers,” in the December number of this “Monthly,” I observe some statements concerning the fig which observation here in California, where the tree is very common and grows luxuriantly, does not confirm.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0016.xml
article
554
554,555,556,557,558,559
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EDITOR’S TABLE.
"MIND AS A SOCIAL FACTOR."
TEE RELATION OF SCIENCE TO CULTURE.
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THIS is the title of an article contributed by Mr. Lester F. Ward to the quarterly periodical “Mind.” Mr. Ward, as is well known, is the author of “Dynamic Sociology,” which contains an elaborate attack, with all the weapons of science and philosophy, upon the doctrine of laissez faire, as it is termed, or the policy of meddling less, and leaving things social more to their own natural courses.
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LITERARY NOTICES.
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
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PROBABLY the ablest systematic work produced by the modern English school of political economy is the comprehensive treatise of John Stuart Mill. It has been a good deal used in the colleges, but is in several respects imperfect as a text-book.
PopularScience_18850201_0026_004_0018.xml
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568
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POPULAR MISCELLANY.
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The Loss of the Lapham Collection. —One of the most serious losses in the recent fire at the Wisconsin State University was the scientific collection made by Dr. I. A. Lapham, and purchased after his death by the State. It consisted of a cabinet containing fossils, minerals, shells, meteorites, and Indian antiquities, 10,000 specimens in all, besides duplicates for exchange; an herbarium of 24,000 specimens, belonging to 8,000 species ; and a library of about 1,500 books, pamphlets, and maps.
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575
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NOTES.
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THE Italian Alpine Club is laboring to reafforest the mountains of the peninsula, and is having a measurable degree of success. In 1882 it had made plantations of greater or less extent, which were thriving, on the Piano del Re, near the sources of the Po ; on Lake Como and Lago Maggiore.
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article
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OBITUARY NOTES.
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ARTHUR HENNINGER, a French chemist of German birth, died October 4th, in the thirty-fifth year of his age. He studied and labored with Wurtz, and was distinguished for his experiments in the reduction of the polyatomic alcohols, and particularly of erythrite, by formic acid.
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