EVER since the study of human anatomy has attracted any attention, variations in the arrangement of the different structures of the body have been noticed. For many centuries, the signification of these variations was not understood ; and even as lately as 1840, Dr. Knox, of Edinburgh, who had the courage to state his conviction that they connected man with the lower animals, was looked upon, even by members of his own profession, as one prompted by the evil-one.
DO not plead guilty to taking a shallow view of human nature, when I propose to apply, as it were, a foot-rule to its heights and depths. The powers of man are finite, and if finite they are not too large for measurement. Those persons may justly be accused of shallowness of view who do not discriminate a wide range of differences, but quickly lose all sense of proportion, and rave about infinite heights and unfathomable depths, and use such like expressions, which are not true and betray their incapacity.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: It is no ordinary meeting of the British Association which I have now the honor of addressing. For more than fifty years the Association has held its autumn gathering in various towns of the United Kingdom, and within those limits there is, I suppose, no place of importance which we have not visited.
THERE is no such impassable gap between man and. the animals that they can not be considered brothers in creation, and therefore liable to certain reciprocal obligations. As it is our duty to be just and sympathetic toward men, it is equally our duty not to be wicked or cruel toward animals.
THE African negroes, like all primitive peoples, are great children. Too much should, therefore, not be made of their mental acts. That wonderful system of mystic conceptions which closet theologians believe they can discover among them can not stand the test of serious, unprejudiced examination.
IN a former article published in this "Monthly"* I endeavored to make prominent the essential difference between a system of education based on scientific culture and the generally prevailing system which is based on linguistic training.
A CORRESPONDENT from Hereford refers to the concluding paragraph of my last paper "as too valuable to let slip, without making practical use of it," and, accordingly, asks for further information concerning the salts that should be contained in our food, and "in what other form can a poor mortal obtain them.
THE traditions of the ancient peoples, embellished by the poets, have commonly attributed the first steps in agriculture and the introduction of useful plants to some divinity, or at least to some great emperor or inca. Reflection teaches us that this is not probable, and the observation of the agricultural efforts among the savages of our own age indicates that the real facts in the case are quite different.
IT is no marvel that labor and capital are in conflict; and yet they are necessarily co-operative factors to the same end. What benefits capital should also benefit labor, and vice versa, and there is essential harmony between them, as Bastiat, Carey, Perry, and other economists insist; but the theoretical harmony thus so obvious fails in practice, and we are compelled to acknowledge the fact of actual discordance.
OF all the projects that have excited the ridicule of the unimaginative of times gone by, perhaps none has appeared more exceedingly funny and chimerical than that of producing at will, by mechanism operated by heat, a freezing cold, and that without the use of ice, or any previously congealed substance, and without regard to atmospheric temperature.
SCATTERED about in the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are many records of the cure of divers human maladies in simple and mysterious-seeming ways. Valentin Greaterakes, in Charles II's reign, was, we are told, "famous for curing various diseases and distempers by a stroak of the hand only.
IN the year 1875 the Meteorological Society of London was moved to follow the lead of the French meteorologists in reference to lightning-conductors, and to appoint a Lightning-Rod Committee. From the report made to the society by the council in the following year, it appears that the objects contemplated in this action were "an investigation and record of accidents from lightning, an inquiry into the principles involved in the protection of buildings, the diffusion of exact information regarding the best form and arrangement for lightning-conductors, and the consideration of all phenomena connected with atmospheric electricity.
IT remains only now that I should consider the general conclusions toward which our discussion of the subject of happiness as a guide to conduct may appear to have led us. Let me note, yet once more, that those have entirely misapprehended the whole drift of this series of papers who imagine, as many still seem to do, that my subject has been the morality of being happy, the propriety of seeking after happiness.
AT the present moment, when the Continent has again become the battle-field between cholera and the human race, all questions concerning the cause, diffusion, and prevention of the cholera-virus must take a prominent place in the deliberation on the best sanitary measures to be adopted in combating this insidious foe.
AMONG the most striking features of the popular life and thought which the student of the different races of mankind has to consider are the ideas and usages that are grouped around death. The fact of death, on account of its absolute certainty as well as on account of its nature, is the incident of human existence that has struck all peoples with the most solemn impressiveness.
WE publish an excellent portrait, this month, of the subject of the present sketch, Professor Lord Rayleigh, President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which held its annual meeting this year at Montreal. JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT, Baron Rayleigh, of Ferling Place, Essex, was born November 12, 1842.
THE Montreal Congress of British Scientists, which was at first thought to be a very dubious experiment, turned out a success. Some nine or ten hundred members of the British Association crossed the sea, and, with the accessions from Canada, and a strong representation from the United States, the meeting became very large, and a great deal of excellent work was done.
THE NEW CHEMISTRY. By JOSIAH PARSONS COOKE, LL. D. Revised edition, remodeled and enlarged. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 400. Price, $2. ALL who are interested in the progress of chemistry will be glad to learn that Professor Cooke has thoroughly revised his interesting volume in the "International Scientific Series," entitled "The New Chemistry.
The Warmest Month.—M. E. Renou remarks, in the "Annuaire" of the French Meteorological Society, that throughout the northern temperate zone the maximum of temperature occurs, as a rule, in July. In the corresponding zone on the other side of the equator the maximum comes in January.
ACCORDING to the estimates of Mr. J. C. Smock, of New Brunswick, New Jersey, made after a comparison of all the observations, the great glacier of our continent "appears to have covered the whole of New England and Northern New York, and to have filled the Hudson Valley to a depth of at least three thousand feet, as far south as the Catskills, burying the Berkshire Hills, the Shawangunk Mountain range, and the Highlands of Southern New York in its icy folds.