THE struggle between the adherents of the old classical curriculum and the representatives of modern culture has nowhere been carried on with more bitterness than in Germany. In no other land have the respective antagonists shown more narrowness and bigotry, or been less inclined to allow their opponents the possession of common sense or pure motives.
THE depression of the waters of the Lakes of Neufchâtel, Morat, and Bienne, which the Swiss Confederation has been having executed during the last ten years, has been a most fortunate event for archaeologists ; and with pick in hand, and on a relatively new ground, they have been able to recover hosts of treasures from the buried ruins of the lake-villages.
AS structures are evolved, so are the functions which structures subserve. And as the functions of the body are evolved, so are those combinations of bodily actions evolved which we include under the general term conduct. We are considering the functions of the body when we are inquiring into such actions of the various structures internal and external as involve internal processes, simple or complex.
AS the result of ray inquiries among pupils and teachers in the advanced schools for young ladies, I find that about five or six hours of actual school-work, and from two to four hours of preparation at home, may be taken as the time that is each day occupied in education.
IN a previous article, we noticed that even circumstances which seem to result in accumulations involving vast lapses of time are seen to be temporary when considered with relation to very great and to us inconceivable periods. The stability is apparent only, and is due to our limited grasp of duration.
UNLIKE the ordinary consciousness, the religious consciousness is concerned with that which lies beyond the sphere of sense. A brute thinks only of things which can be touched, seen, heard, tasted, etc.; and the like is true of the untaught child, the deaf-mute, and the lowest savage.
THE iguanodon was discovered by Dr. Mantell, in the Wealden of England, in 1822, and has since figured in geological books as one of the largest and most remarkable of the animals whose former existence is revealed in the fossil beds of past ages
DETERIORATION of the eye has been, for many years, a topic of complaint—not only in the United States, but in Europe. In Germany, after a careful examination of the pupils in a public school, a surgeon has reported that the proportion of normal-sighted children is gradually less as the ages of the subjects advance : being thirtysix per cent in the primary classes to ninety per cent in the highest classes.
IN my last I described generally the diffusion of liquids, and the actions to which the names of enclosmosis and exosmosis have been given. It is easily seen that in extracting the juices of meat by immersion in water the work is done by these two agencies.
THERE has always been more or less of mystery connected with the disorder popularly called “ a cold.” A close observer, in studying this question, will find : 1. That, while persons of all ages, sexes, occupations, social positions, and in all conditions of general health—from the delicate infant and the frail consumptive to the most robust man—have colds, say to-day, from the slightest causes, often enough, indeed, when utterly at a loss to account for the attack ; next month, or next week, perhaps, the same individuals—the frail and delicate ones, even—may pass through severe exposures to wet and cold, even to the point of being chilled through and through, without producing a symptom of this disorder.
NEW and valuable scientific discoveries and inventions are not slow at the present time in making their way from the closets and laboratories of the investigators or discoverers to popular recognition. It is somewhat otherwise with the gradual development of knowledge on subjects once thought to have been tolerably clearly understood and of no immediate practical value.
EVERY man is, in the true Greek sense of the term, an idiosyncrasy. He is a syncrasis, because he derives all his attributes, physical or mental, from two parents, or four grandparents, or eight great-grandparents, and so forth. But at the same time he is an idiosyncrasis, because that particular mixture is eminently unlikely ever to have occurred before, or ever to occur again, even in his own brothers or sisters.
THE name of ÉTIENNE GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE is most intimately associated with the establishment of the doctrine of the unity of the organic plan of the animal kingdom. This great naturalist was born at Étampes, France, April 15, 1772, and died in Paris, June 9, 1844.
PROFESSOR COOKE, in his remarks on “ The Greek Question,” does injustice to the best classical schools in express terms, and his statements ought not to pass unchallenged. Classical culture as preparatory for any of the “ learned ” professions, literary or scientific, needs no defense.
THE partisans of classical studies had a Godsend a couple of years ago, in the shape of a report emanating from the professors of the University of Berlin, and corroborated by the action of other universities, which it was claimed ended the controversy on the question of modern against classical studies.
THIS work combines in a very unusual degree the two traits that are so rarely found to coexist in scientific books : it is both original and independent in its views, and is at the same time a most lucid and popular presentation of its subject. While the work is as far as possible from being a compilation, and will be sure to take its place as a valuable contribution to philosophic biology, the author has, nevertheless, given us such a survey of the general subject as will prove interesting and instructive to all readers.
Origin of the Eastern End of Lake Erie. —Mr. Julius Pohlman, starting with the hypothesis that the beds of the Great Lakes were excavated by water in pre-glacial times, has sought for the river which washed out the eastern end of Lake Erie. The discovery of the many large pre-glacial rivers, in Pennsylvania and Ohio, running into the lake-basin, explains well enough how the erosion in general has taken place.
THE Franklin Institute will open an International Exhibition of Electricity and Electrical Appliances in Philadelphia, on the 2d day of September next. By a special act of Congress, all articles “ imported solely for exhibition” on this occasion will be admitted free of duty ; but, if they are sold or withdrawn for consumption, the regular duties must be paid upon them.