A CHILD’S toy-balloon may afford us an illustration of what a naturalist might call a typical cell. We have in the toy simply a closed sac thoroughly distended by its contents, more or less perfectly spherical in shape, and affording in outline or cross-section an almost perfect circle.
A GLANCE at the changing fortunes of the Jews in France, England, and Spain, brings clearly to light how their condition was influenced by the hierarchy. In England as in Germany, the Jews were the special property of the king, and were in part fostered as a valuable and profitable possession, and provided with privileges, and in part, particularly under King John and Henry III, made the object of merciless extortion.
THE uses of porcelain have so multiplied, the employment of that material has become so general, that few persons recollect the time, not yet far back, when it was considered an object of luxury, and only delf was within the reach of all. In this paper I shall consider, first, the nature of porcelain and the history of its discovery ; next, the principal points in its manufacture ; and, lastly, the different methods of decorating it.
ALTHOUGH the reputation of the Romans as a civilized people has somewhat sunken of late, their army-life still awakens unbounded admiration. The Greeks called their army after the camp, the Macedonians after its formation. To the neo-Latins the army is armed power ; the Germans seem to regard it as a union of the warriors into a common host.
IN our journey from Sayang in Yunnan to Bhamo in Burmah, we became acquainted with a race of mountaineers who are called Kacheen by the Burmese, but who call themselves Chingpos. They are a small, delicate people, whose brightly-beaming eyes contrast strongly with their reserved behavior.
THE problems of property form an interesting department of social science. They involve questions as to the growth and distribution of wealth, the province of government with respect thereto, and similar inquiries scarcely susceptible of treatment by formal scientific methods.
SINCE many writers opposed to the practice of experiments on animals have based their objections entirely on moral grounds, and thus made the question of vivisection an ethical one, I have been anxious to know what laws they have discovered for our guidance on this vexed subject.
BORAX is now well known to occur in very many of the salt-springs in the Coast Mountains of California. But in only two places has it been found in large quantities: these are Borax Lake and Hachinhama (pronounced Hah'-chin-ha'-ma), both being in the immediate vicinity of Clear Lake, about eighty miles north of San Francisco.
AT the recent International Medical Congress, held in London, upon which the attention and enthusiastic interest of the whole medical world were for the time being centered, Professor Huxley, in an address made to that assembly, used the term “medicine” to include “the great body of theoretical and practical knowledge which has been accumulated by the labors of some eighty generations”—that is, during the entire period since the dawn of scientific thought in Europe.
THE springs called thermal springs are found in all latitudes, at various elevations above the sea, and in most of the geological formations. The word thermal does not, however, denote a spring of any particular degree of temperature, and is far from signifying that the springs to which it is applied are all equally warm ; for any spring is thermal, the water of which is warmer than the mean annual temperature of the place where it occurs.
IN her clever article upon “Science and the Woman Question,” in “The Popular Science Monthly” of March, 1882, Miss Hardaker arrives at the definite conclusion that woman is and must necessarily for ever remain the intellectual inferior of man.
THE nature of music is threefold, like that of man to whom it appeals. Therefore, it may be regarded as a sensuous art, in that it delights the ear ; as a psychologic art, in that it records the emotions, and requires mental operations on the part of the hearer for its due appreciation ; and, as it involves agreements, differences, symmetries, complexities, etc., and order in apparent disorder, it may be regarded as a branch of science closely allied to mathematics.
MANY difficulties, says the “Quarterly Review,” tend to prevent ichthyology becoming a popular study, as the study of shells, insects, birds, or flowers is popular. However it may be with the particular species that anglers seek out and professional fishermen hunt, fishes as a class are not familiar objects.
THE rectangular system of laying out streets has the advantage of extreme simplicity, and lends itself to a convenient adjustment of the interior of the houses of a city ; but it is monotonous in the extreme, and makes communication between one quarter of the town and another very inconvenient ; for the passenger is compelled to go along the two sides of a triangle to accomplish the distance represented by its hypotenuse.
THE career of Professor Haldeman illustrates how a student, who has his heart in his work, may excel as a specialist in more than one branch of science ; and shows how the enthusiastic investigator, seeking light from all sides on the point he has under investigation, may be led by the natural course of his work from one branch to another, which at first view seems quite distinct from it.
— Charles Darwin paid a splendid compliment to John Fiske in a letter he wrote him after reading the “Cosmic Philosophy.” This is part of what he said: “You must allow me to thank you for the very great interest with which I have at last slowly read the whole of your work.
REFERRING to Dr. Garretson’s communication in the February number of “The Popular Science Monthly,” relating to rock-vibration in the Patapsco Valley, I would state that a like phenomenon has often been manifested at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, and has been the subject of much curious speculation on the part of the inhabitants of that village.
THERE are many who will regret to learn that this great work has been brought to a close. It has not been carried as far as its projector originally intended, but still we can not say that it has stopped prematurely or remains merely as a fragment.
DISEASES OF MEMORY: AN ESSAY IN THE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY. By TH. RIBOT, author of “Heredity: its Phenomena, Laws, Causes, and Consequences,” “English Psychology,” etc. Translated from the French by William Huntington Smith. D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 209. Price, $1.50.
American Forestry.—An American Congress of Forestry was held in Cincinnati, beginning April 25th, of which the Hon. George B. Loring, Commissioner of Agriculture of the United States, was chosen President for the year. Ten State and Provincial organizations, one of which embraces the Canadian Provinces, were recognized, and sections were constituted, as follows: A. Uses of Forests ; Dr. Franklin B. Hough, President.
THE fifth annual meeting of the American Society of Microscopists will be held at Elmira, New York, Tuesday, August 15th, and on the three following days. Liberal arrangements have been made by the local committee for entertainment. A meeting of great interest is anticipated.