ANTERIOR to all regulations for the punishment or suppression of wrongs by an exercise of public authority, there was, as is generally agreed, a time when injuries found redress only through the resentment and retaliation of the injured party or his kin.
SAPORTA'S WORLD OF PLANTS BEFORE THE APPEARANCE OF MAN*
MISS E. A. YOUMANS.
MEN of science, whose patient researches have accumulated the proofs of the theory of evolution, have perhaps found more facts in support of this great philosophical doctrine in the vegetable than in the animal world. When we say the vegetable world, we of course mean chiefly fossil vegetables.
TYPHOID fever is one of the most common of the serious ailments of civilized life. No household is safe against it ; there is no family which it may not invade. In Great Britain alone not much short of 200,000 people suffer from it every year. Of these nearly 20,000 die, most of them in the prime of life.
THE Hanoverian village of E-lies a few miles distant from a famous university town, in a district which still maintains many old-time customs, and which presents, therefore, a curious image of German rural life thirty or forty years ago. The approach to E-from G-is very pretty.
[ABRIDGMENT OF AN ADDRESS BEFORE THE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.]}
CHARLES P. DALY, LL. D.
THE materials for the history of cartography, or the art of mapmaking, are scanty. I propose to give a brief account of what we knew about it before the time of Gerard Krehmer, better known by his Latinized name of Mercator, who produced a large map of the world more than three centuries ago.
THE separation of a liquid from solids suspended in it, by straining through some material pervious to the one and impenetrable to the other, was a familiar process in the remotest antiquity. Observation of various processes in nature, such as the purification of water by trickling through sandy soil, or perhaps the accidental passage of rain-water through an outstretched cloth, a garment, or a tent-cover, would obviously suggest the simple expedient.
CLOSELY connected both in date of composition and in subjectmatter is the ";Utilitarianism."; I find from a letter that it was written in 1854. It was thoroughly revised in 1860, and appeared as three papers in ";Fraser's Magazine"; in the beginning of 1861.
THE works of Helmholtz, and those of his English translator Ellis, have drawn attention to the fact that piano-fortes and instruments with similar key-boards are out of tune. The recent contribution to musical literature by Professor Pole having referred to the subject of intonation, it becomes a duty to the public to point out the misconceptions of these theorists, and to state that musical problems are far more complex than they believe.
WE are all agreed in preferring the light of day to any other. In spite of the extreme variations which take place in its intensity and sometimes in its coloring, we seldom think of modifying it or softening it for healthy eyes except when they are exposed to entirely unaccustomed conditions.
AMONG the large and increasing flocks of patients who crowd the out-door departments of our metropolitan hospitals, there is a class of persons who of late years have rendered themselves conspicuous by demanding medical assistance.
OF late years public attention has been somewhat drawn to the great North African Desert. Mainly instrumental in directing thither even the eyes and ears of idle curiosity have been the two plans for flooding portions of that region. Of these plans, the French and the English, the former has assumed the more definite shape, though both are the subject of scientific and practical inquiry.
IT has been repeated, until the remark has become accepted as a sort of truism, that the gypsies are a mysterious race, and that nothing is known of their origin. And a few years ago this was true ; but within those years so much has been discovered that at present there is really no more mystery attached to the beginning of these nomads than is peculiar to many other peoples.
THE caves, tombs, and gravel-drifts of the earth, which are of all objects the most uninteresting to the casual observer, have in our days become strangely eloquent. At the touch of science they have lent a voice to the dumb past. Raising the veil of antiquity, they have unrolled page after page of ancient history, written neither with pen nor pencil, but stamped on the rude implements of war or the chase, imprinted on the few threads of decaying tissue that inwrap the crumbling skeleton, engraved on the bracelet of bronze or silver that encircled the slender wrist of some prehistoric beauty, or chased on the brooch of gold that clasped the mantle of some renowned but forgotten chieftain.
THERE is no other name so long and closely associated with the history of American science as that of Silliman. The first who made it illustrious was Benjamin Silliman, born in 1779, and educated for a lawyer, but who entered the field of science early in the century, accepting the new chair of Chemistry in Yale College in 1802.
A BEAUTIFUL and unusual phenomenon was observed here on the afternoon of the 13th instant. Between three and four o'clock, the western sky being partially covered with cirri, and obscured near the horizon by a dense haze, about thirty degrees horizontally north of the sun was seen a mock-sun of dazzling brilliancy.
THOSE dainty purists who ";do not like the word Sociology,"; and are therefore hindered from taking interest in the science that passes under the name, may get a glimpse of one of its problems in unobjectionable form by reading the able paper of a practical lawyer which opens the present ";Monthly."; Of all the questions by which modern society is agitated, there is none more momentous than that of the public treatment of crime and criminals.
OCTAVIUS PERINCHIEF : HIS LIFE OF TRIAL AND SUPREME FAITH. By CHARLES LANMAN. Washington : James Anglim. Pp. 403. Price, $2.
THE ARCTIC VOYAGES OF ADOLF ERIK NORDENSKIÖLD FROM 1858 TO 1879. With Illustrations and Maps. London: Macmillan & Co. 1879. $4.50.
AN ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS. By WILLIAM ROSSITER. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 350. Price, $1.75.
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND ITS EARLY LITERATURE. By J. H. GILMORE, A. M., Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and English in the University of Rochester. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 138. Price, 60 cents.
DARWINISM AND OTHER ESSAYS. By JOHN FISKE, A. M., LL. B. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 283. Price, $2.
MEMOIRS OF THE SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF TOKIO, JAPAN. Vol. I., Part I. Shell-Mounds of Omari. By EDWARD S. MORSE, Professor of Zoölogy, University of Tokio. Published by the University of Tokio, Japan. Nisshusha Printing-Office. 2539 (1879).
FUEL: ITS COMBUSTION AND ECONOMY. Edited by C. KINNARD CLARK, C. E. D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 394. Price, $1.50.
UNITS AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS. By J. D. EVERETT, F. R. S. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 175. Price, $1.10.
SOLAR LIGHT AND HEAT: THE SOURCE AND SUPPLY. Gravitation ; with Explanations of Planetary and Molecular Forces. By ZACHARY ALLEN, LL. D. D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 241. Price, $1.50.
FIRST BOOK OF QUALITATIVE CHEMISTRY. By ALBERT R. PRESCOTT, Professor of Applied Chemistry in the University of Michigan. Van Nostrand. Pp. 160. Price, $1.50.
ELECTRO-METALLURGY PRACTICALLY TREATED. By ALEXANDER WATT, F. R. S. S. A. D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 195. Price, $1.
THIS is the biography of a devout clergyman, who was at the same time a cordial and fearless friend of science. We call attention to some features of the work that illustrate this combination of traits. The subject of it was born in Bermuda in 1829.
Geology of the Far West.—Last summer Professor Geikie, of the University of Edinburgh, came over here to study the geology of our Western Territories, the remarkable peculiarities of which have excited much interest abroad; and he has recently made his explorations the subject of a very interesting lecture before his class.
EXTENSIVE excavations near Waldorf, in the neighborhood of Bonn, Germany, have brought to light the site of an old town believed to be of Roman origin, but the extent of which is yet quite unknown. The remains of a large Roman villa were discovered in the vicinity, situated a little below the site of an extinct volcano—a circumstance going to show that at the time of the Roman occupation the volcanoes of the Rhine had ceased to be dangerous.