I.—THE PRIMORDIAL PERIOD, OR AGE OF UNCONSCIOUS INFERENCES.
II.—THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC AGE.
III.—THE PERIOD OF SPECULATIVE AND ÆSTHETIC CONTEMPLATION OF NATURE.
IV.—THE SCHOLASTICO-ASCETIC PERIOD.
V.—THE RISE OF MODERN SCIENCE.
PROFESSOR EMIL DU BOIS-REYMOND
THE relation of man to Nature primordially and of savage races in the present day is, as we know, very different from what it has been represented to be by poets and philosophers. In the delightful pictures their fancy painted there was nothing true: the idyllic conditions amid which they fancied the still youthful human race as living never have existed anywhere.
OUR most intense coast-lights, including the six-wick lamp, the Wigham gaslight, and the electric light, being intended to aid the mariner in heavy weather, may be regarded, in a certain sense, as fog-signals. But fog, when thick, is intractable to light ; the sun cannot penetrate it, much less any terrestrial source of illumination.
IN the year 1871, three kilns were built on lot 54, Jay Tract, town of Wilmington, Essex County, New York, for the purpose of burning wood into charcoal, to be used in making iron in the Catalan forges, on the Ausable River. At the time these kilns were built, the side of the mountain upon which they are located was covered with a heavy growth of spruce-timber.
WHAT the obeisance implies by acts, the form of address says in words. If the two have a common root, this is to be anticipated ; and that they have a common root is demonstrable. Instances occur in which the two are used indifferently, as being the one equivalent to the other.
IN education there has to be encountered at every turn the play of motives. Now, the theory of motives is the theory of sensation, emotion, and will ; in other words, it is the psychology of the sensitive and the active powers. 1. THE Senses.—The pleasures, the pains, and the privations of the senses, are the earliest and the most unfailing, if not also the strongest, of motives.
AMONG the thousands who visit the sea-shore in summer, there are many who, although not naturalists, are more or less interested in the various marine forms which there abound, and perhaps a brief notice of some of these forms will be acceptable to those who have not made a special study of life as it is revealed in the sea.
OUTLINE OF THE RECONSTRUCTED PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE.— Even a qualified admission of the soundness of these views also compels the admission that the reconstruction of the principles of evidence is the crowning need of philosophy.
THE close proximity of the satellites of Mars to their primary has led me to investigate the lesson taught by them and other satellites of short periods. This investigation has enabled me to demonstrate : I. That the nebular hypothesis fails to account for the present condition of the solar system, without the additional hypothesis of a resisting medium in space.
IN executions it is the custom to drop the condemned man from a height, or (as in New York) to jerk him up from the ground by the fall of a heavy weight, so that there is a powerful concussion of the brain to start with. It used to be a common belief that the necks of criminals were broken by this means, and that the pressure of the fractured vertebrae on the spinal cord shortened the period of suffering.
NOT many years ago the manifestations of energy were looked upon as mere conditions of matter. When a moving body came to rest, it was thought that the motion was obliterated from the universe, and, when a body at rest was put in motion, it was supposed to be a creation.
THE name of Du Bois-Reymond stands high among that group of illustrious scientific men of whom Germany may well be proud. He is known throughout the scientific world for his masterly researches in experimental physiology, having, while yet a young man, made a series of brilliant discoveries in electro-physiology, which at once placed him at the head of that delicate and important branch of investigation.
IN the death of Prof. Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, which occurred May 13th, American science has met with an irreparable loss. Little needs to be said in eulogy of a character so widely and familiarly known, and so profoundly respected and admired, as this venerable savant.
WE can in no way do such excellent justice to this comprehensive and elaborate work, as by quoting, in full, the able review of it that appeared in the New York Tribune : “The 'Flora of North America,’ by Drs. John Torrey and Asa Gray, was commenced in 1838, and appeared in numbers, at convenient intervals, until 1840, when, having reached, in the accepted arrangement of orders, to the end of Compositæ, its publication ceased.
Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States. By D. S. Jordan, Ph. D., M. D. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Chicago : Janson, McClurg & Co. Pp. 406. $2.50. Machine Construction. By E. Tomkins. Vol. I., Text, pp. 368, $1.50; Vol. II., Plates (XLVIII.), $4.50. New York : Putnams.
Fossil Mammal from the Jurassic of the Rocky Mountains.—One of the most interesting discoveries made in the Rocky Mountain region is the right lower jaw of a small mammal recently received at the Yale College Museum, and described by Prof.
THE American Association for the Advancement of Science will assemble in St. Louis, on August 21st. The officers are: President, Prof. O. C. Marsh ; Vice-President of the Physical Section, Prof. R. H. Thurston ; Vice-President of the Natural History Section, Prof. Augustus R. Grote; General Secretary, Prof. H. Carrington Bolton; Secretary of Section A, Prof. Francis E. Nipher; Secretary of Section B, George Little; Treasurer, William S. Vaux; Chairman of Chemical Sub-section, Prof. F. W. Clarke.