Issue: 18770601

Friday, June 1, 1877
JUNE, 1877
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Saturday, October 18, 2014

Articles
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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY
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ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE FAMILY.
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HERBERT SPENCER
LET us now look at the connections between types of family and i social types. Do societies of different degrees of composition habitually present different forms of domestic arrangement? Are different forms of domestic arrangement associated writh the militant system of organization and the industrial system of organization?
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142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152☺,153,154,155,156
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OUR AMERICAN OWLS.
FAMILY. Strigidæ.—The Owls.
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PROFESSOR SAMUEL LOCKWOOD
HE owls are rapacious birds, and in company with all the true birds of prey belong to the great order Raptores. The order branches into two large groups, known respectively as the diurnal and the nocturnal birds of prey. To the Diurnes belong the vultures, hawks, and eagles ; to the Nocturnes belong the owls.
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INITIATORY FORCES.
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GEORGE ILES
LAST September, when the operations for the removal of the obstructions at Hell-Gate, in the harbor of New York, had culminated in the completion of the great labyrinth of tunnels, and the storing therein of a larger quantity of explosives than had ever been used at once before, General Newton, the chief-engitieer, at the appointed moment told his little child to gently push a telegraph-key.
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MESMERISM, ODYLISM, TABLE-TURNING, AND SPIRITUALISM.
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WILLIAM B. CARPENTER
IT was asserted, about thirty years ago, by Baron von Reichenbach, whose researches on the chemistry of the hydrocarbons constitute the foundation of our present knowledge of paraffin and its allied products of the distillation of coal, that he had found certain “ sensitive ” subjects so peculiarly affected by the neighborhood of magnets or crystals as to justify the assumption of a special polar force, which he termed Odyle, allied to, but not identical with, magnetism; present in all material substances, though generally in a less degree than in magnets and crystals; but called into energetic activity by any kind of physical or chemical change, and therefore especially abundant in the human body.
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ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF STANDARD TIME IN THE UNITED STATES.
Table showing Error of Longitude in Geographical Miles on the Equator, deduced from 1,700 Chronometers.
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EDWARD S. HOLDEN
FOR the ordinary purposes of life in a state of society which is not yet complex, a very simple system of recording the lapse of time is sufficient. Sunrise and sunset are local phenomena, which from the earliest times forced themselves upon the attention of every one, and which throughout the early centuries sufficed for the division of time.
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MATTER AND MIND.
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FRANCES EMILY WHITE
UNDER cover of the words placed at the head of this paper, it is V-J proposed to call attention to a few only of the more salient points involved in the subject, and especially to those suggested in a recent article in this journal,1 in which the attempt is made to apply the principle of correlation to certain forces (called indifferently mental and spiritual), without recognizing that highly-important factor in the manifestation of all known force, viz., matter.
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GAR-PIKES, OLD AND YOUNG.
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PROFESSOR BURT G. WILDER
THE writer’s opportunities for observing the motions of the adult gar were too brief to enable him to describe them accurately. It is to be hoped that this fish may soon be placed in some public aquarium. But the motions of several young gars were carefully watched daily during three weeks.
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RELATION OF THE AIR TO THE HOUSE WE LIVE IN.'
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DR. MAX VON PETTENKOFER
WE shall devote this evening to the consider~ition of some hygi enie functions of the house.2 On the whole, the house has the same hygienic object as our clothing : it has not only to keep up the intercourse with the atmosphere surrounding us, but to regulate it according to our wants.
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SPINOZA: 1677 AND 1877.
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ERNEST RENAN
ON this day two hundred years, in the afternoon, and at about this same hour, there lay dying, at the age of forty-three, on the quiet quay of the Pavilioengragt a few paces hence, a poor man, whose life had been so profoundly silent that his last sigh was scarcely heard.
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TRANSMISSION OF EXCITATIONS IN SENSORY NERVES.
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PAUL BERT
HYSIOLOGISTS are as yet by no means agreed whether the nerves which, from their special functions, have been termed motor and sensor nerves, are in their essential properties identical or different ; in other words, whether a sensor nerve can transmit excitations whose result is motion, and vice versa.
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ON THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF JUPITER AND SATURN.
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DAVID TROWBRIDGE
NOT many years ago the planets Jupiter and Saturn were re garded as solid bodies, their small relative density being supposed to be due either to the peculiar arrangement of the materials which compose them, or to the small specific gravity of the materials themselves.
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SKETCH OF ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE.
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ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, an English naturalist, was born at Usk, Monmouthshire, January 8, 1822. He was employed for several years in the architectural office of his brother, and then devoted himself to natural history. In 1848 he accompanied Mr. II. W. Bates in a scientific expedition to Brazil, where, after a protracted sojourn in Pará, he explored the primeval forests of the Amazon and Rio Negro, returning to England in 1852.
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CORRESPONDENCE.
A CURIOUS SALINE DEPOSIT.
FERMENTATION AND DISEASE.
THE ORIGIN OF HONEY-DEW.
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SIR : A singular natural phenomenon has recently come under my observation. As I have never heard of it before, and as it appears almost incredible to all who have heard me speak of it, I thought it well to give it publicity through the columns of your monthly.
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EDITOR'S TABLE.
THE POPULAR SCIENCE SUPPLEMENTS.
JEVONS ON “CRAM.”
A BASELESS RUMOR.
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TWO great tendencies of modern thought are every year more and more marked : one relating to its character, and the other to the form of its expression. The thinking of the age is taking a scientific direction, and becoming more profoundly imbued with the scientific spirit, while the leading minds of all nations are contributing their choicest work for periodical publication.
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LITERARY NOTICES.
SPENCER'S PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY.
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
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VARIOUS opinions were passed at the time upon Prof. Tyndall’s choice of a subject for his American lectures, and also i upon his treatment of it. Some complained that he had chosen a branch of physics so well settled as that of light, and thought that he ought rather to have entered into some of the exciting phases of modern scientific controversy.
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POPULAR MISCELLANY.
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Proposed Scientific Expedition around the World.—For some months Mr. James 0. Woodruff, of Indianapolis, has been busily engaged in organizing a “ scientific expedition around the tvorld,” the object of which is to visit points of general and special interest, to study architecture, archaeology, geology, and the fauna and flora of new or little known localities, and to make collections and studies in natural history generally.
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NOTES.
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DR. ELLIOTT COUES, U. S. Army, the distinguished naturalist of the Hayden Surveys, and one of the most eminent ornithologists in the country, has just been elected Professor of Anatomy in the National Medical College in Washington. He entered upon its duties in April, and chose for the subject of his inaugural lecture, “ Anatomical Science in its Bearings on the Origin of Species and Man’s Flace in Nature.”
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