FERMENTATION AND ITS BEARINGS ON THE PHENOMENA OF DISEASE.1
IN a book with which we are all familiar, amid other wise utterances, this one occurs : “ Cast thy bread upon the waters ; for thou shalt find it after many days.” In more senses than one this precept is illustrated by my presence here to-night. Firstly, in a general sense, I stand indebted, morally and intellectually, to the poets, historians, and philosophers, of Scotland.
MOST of those who have given directions for the construction of lightning-conductors have paid great attention to the upper and lower extremities of the conductor. They recommend that the upper extremity of the conductor should extend somewhat above the highest part of the building to be protected, and that it should terminate in a sharp point, and that the lower extremity should be carried as far as possible into the conducting strata of the ground, so as to “ make ” what telegraph engineers call “ a good earth.
DURING a recent visit to Salt Lake City I happened to ask one of the leading Mormons what works, in addition to the Book of Mormon, would give me a fair idea of the religious doctrines professed by the Latter-day Saints and of their history, as they themselves desire to have it told.
CUTTING edges are sometimes doubled, and thus the chisel passes into another group of tools—shears. The most common of these is the ordinary household scissors opened and closed by hand; when required for heavier work, then one handle is fixed in a vise, and both hands can be employed upon the other lengthened arm (see Figs. 1 and 2).
WHAT AMERICAN ZOOLOGISTS HAVE DONE FOR EVOLUTION.1
PROFESSOR EDWARD S. MORSE
IN the “ Memoirs of the American Academy of Sciences ” may be found a profound mathematical essay “ On the Uses and Origin of the Arrangement of Leaves and Plants,” 2 by the lamented Chauncey Wright. After discussing the laws of phyllotaxy, and showing that the botanist is wrong in supposing this a law at the outset, Mr. Wright states “one of the utilities, so to speak, in the apparently undeviating arrangement of leaves, to be the distributing of leaves most rapidly and thoroughly around the stem, exposed more completely to light and air, and provided with greater freedom for symmetrical expansion, together with more compact arrangement of bud; ” and he asks, “ What has determined such an arrangement of vital forces ? ” Theory of types would say, their very nature, or an ultimate creative power. Theory of adaptation would say, the necessity of their lives, both outward and inward ; or the conditions, both past and present, of their existence.
ON an average, one-half of the number of out-patients treated by a hospital-surgeon suffer from diseases due primarily to a want of knowledge of the laws of health and cleanliness. 1. The ignorance of hygienic laws, which affects so disastrously the health of the rich as well as the poor, exists chiefly in regard to dress, ablution, and ventilation.
A CORRESPONDENT hands us the following anecdotes illustrative of the remarkable reasoning powers of dogs : The first case is one which occurred at a fashionable watering-place on the east coast of Ireland, some twenty years ago, and exhibits the remarkable sagacity displayed by a dog in carrying out the dictates of the animal passion for revenge. The jetty which stretched along the small harbor was at that time used as a promenade by the 'elite among the sojourners on the coast, where, after the heat of the long summer days, they regaled themselves with the fresh evening breezes wafted in from the sea.
IN my lecture on Monday night I pointed out that there are three hypotheses which may be entertained, and which have been entertained, respecting the past history of life upon the globe. According to the first of these hypotheses, life, such as we now know it, has existed from all eternity upon this earth.
THERE are a large number of different kinds of moths, inhabiting North America and Europe, which entomologists have classified under the technical family term, Noctuœ. Of this family, 1,028 different species have been catalogued as European.
THE conservation of energy, as treated in the most recent work of authority on the subject, Prof. Balfour Stewart's, published in the "International Scientific Series,” regards energy as divisible into two classes, actual and potential : actual energy, as in the case of a rushing stream of water, or a radiant and contracting mass of molten iron ; and potential energy, where, for instance, a stone is at a height and may fall, or where a spring is tightly coiled and may unwind.
AMONG the younger physicists of the country who have done honor to American science by the interest and extent of their original researches, the subject of the present sketch, and of whom we give an excellent portrait this month, holds a distinguished place.
To the Editor of the Popular Science Monthly. HAVING read in your July number Mr. Buckland’s account of a fight between a scorpion and a mouse, I am induced to give you an account of a remarkable conflict between a large water-snake and a trout, witnessed by myself and one of my brother officers in the survey in 1867, on the Purissima, a small trout-stream which empties into the ocean about twenty-four miles south of San Francisco.
THE devotees of rational amusement, the lovers of natural history, and the friends of scientific education, in this city, are to be congratulated on the establishment of the aquarium which was recently completed and opened to visitors. Undoubtedly the devotees of rational amusement are not so numerous as they might be, hut they will increase in numbers as increasing facilities are afforded for combining agreeable recreation with instructive observation in the acquisition of pleasant knowledge without much trouble.
THE THEORY OP SOUND IN ITS RELATION TO MUSIC. By PIETRO BLASERNA, of the Royal University of Rome. With numerous Illustrations. Pp. 187. Price, $1.50. International Scientific Series, No. XXII. NOTHING could be more appropriate than that the first Italian contribution to the “ International Scientific Series ” should take up one of the most interesting relations of science to art.
Distribution of Plain, Prairie, and Forest.—In the American Naturalist for October, Prof. J. D. Whitney gives a very elaborate critique of the various hypotheses which have been put forth to account for the distribution of plain, prairie, and forest, over the North American Continent.
A MEETING of persons interested in the formation of a Metrological Society was lately held in Boston, which resulted in the organization of the “American Metric Bureau.” Arrangements were made to secure a large list of honorary or life members, and to solicit subscriptions to supply teachers with metric apparatus at half-price.