I. I PURPOSE to present an outline of the great, sacred struggle for the liberty of science—a struggle which has lasted for so many centuries, and which yet continues. A hard contest it has been ; a war waged longer, with battles fiercer, with sieges more persistent, with strategy more shrewd than in any of the comparatively petty warfares of Cæsar or Napoleon or Moltke.
THE kangaroos have now become familiar objects to all who visit our ZoÖlogical Gardens, or who are familiar with any considerable zoÖlogical museum. Their general external form, when seen in the attitude they habitually assume when grazing (with their front limbs touching the ground), may have recalled to mind, more or less, the appearance presented by some hornless deer.
THE Danish settlements in Greenland date from the year 1721, when a colony was established at Godthaab, in latitude 64° north. The country had been visited and colonies settled there as early as the tenth century by Icelanders ; but these Icelandic colonies were utterly destroyed, probably by the pestilence known as the “ black-death ” in the fourteenth century, or early in the fifteenth.
THIS recent cry of the “ Conflict of Religion and Science ” is fallacious, and mischievous to the interests of both science and religion ; and would be most mournful if we did not believe that, in the very nature of things, it must be ephemeral.
NOW that the doctrine which is maintained by Mr. Douglass A. Spalding on this subject has proved itself so completely victorious in overcoming the counter-doctrine of “ the individual-experience psychology”—and this along the whole line both of fact and theory—it seems unnecessary for any one to adduce additional facts in confirmation of the views which Mr. Spalding advocates.1 I shall therefore confine myself to detailing a few results yielded by experiments which were designed to illustrate the subordinate doctrine thus alluded to in Mr. Spalding’s article : 1 See POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY for January, 1876.
NUMEROUS attempts have been made at different times to construct a machine capable of propelling itself through the air. All kinds of aërial propellers have in turn been tried ; such as screws, beating wings, umbrellas which open and shut during their reciprocating motion, inclined planes, aërial wheels.
THERE are in this country three institutions more or less available for the distribution of material for Natural History instruction: the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, District of Columbia ; the (Agassiz) Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Cambridge, Massachusetts ; and Prof. Ward’s establishment at Rochester, New York.
WHAT are the so-called chemical elements ? Are they really elements, or only compounds of remarkable stability ? It would be hard to find in physical science a question which has been oftener asked than this. It has furnished all sorts of investigators with abundant food for speculation.
THE question now arises, What becomes of the rays that have undergone absorption ? Are they in fact, as they appear to be, annihilated ? A series of phenomena now to be considered will give us an answer to these questions. If water containing a little esculine, a substance contained in the bark of the horse-chestnut in solution, be placed in a flask, and the rays of the sun or of the electric lamp, concentrated by a lens situated at about its focal distance from the vesel (Fig.
THE work of Prof. Tyndall on the philosophy of sound has won for itself, in its former editions, the highest possible recognition among scientific men, not only in England, but in other countries. A little more than a year ago, the second edition of this book was translated into German under the special supervision of such eminent investigators as Helmholtz and Wiedemann.
SIR : I have been favored with a copy of the Nation of October 8th, and would ask permission to make a few remarks on the critique of my work on “ Sound ” therein contained. With regard to Prof. Henry, I hope I am not presumptuous in venturing the opinion, and expressing the belief, that his earlier scientific labors were marked by rare power and originality, and that his later years have been usefully and honorably employed in the service of his country.
THE subject of the present notice, of whom an excellent portrait appears in this number, although still in middle life, has made extensive contributions to American science during the past generation, and has permanently identified his name with its progress and development.
THE readers of the MONTHLY will find elsewhere in our pages an article which appeared several weeks ago in the Nation, containing an attack upon Prof. Tyndall, which, from the character of its charges, and the bitterness of its tone, excited the surprise and regret of many.
THE NATURE OF LIGHT, WITH A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF PHYSICAL OPTICS. By Dr. EUGENE LOMMEL, Professor of Physics in the University of Erlangen. With 188 Illustrations. D. Appleton & Co. No. XIX. “International Scientific Series.” Pp. 356. A BOOK has long been wanted, making clear to the popular mind the most interesting and important principles of the beautiful science of optics.
Relations of Chemistry to Pharmacy and Therapeutics.—We present herewith the main points of an instructive address delivered by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt before the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, on “ The Relations of Chemistry to Pharmacy and Therapeutics.” With the eighteenth century is connected the birth of modern chemistry ; and, while Priestley and Lavoisier are honored as having given a new impulsion to chemical theory, the Swedish apothecary Scheele will always be remembered as one who probably enriched the science with more discoveries than either of them.
THE article on “ the Horseshoe Nebula in Sagittarius ” in the number of THE POPUULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY for January, 1876, contains two annoying errors which the editor desires to correct. In Fig. 2, page 271, the letters W and E and also the letters N and S are interchanged.