Issue: 18750801

Sunday, August 1, 1875
AUGUST, 1875.
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Thursday, November 27, 2014

Articles
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384
384,385
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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
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384
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PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COLORADO VALLEY.1
I. Mountains and Valleys.
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MAJOR J. W. POWELL
THE topographical features of the valley of the Colorado, or the area drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries, are, in many respects, unique, as some of these features, perhaps, are not reproduced, except to a very limited extent, on any other portion of the surface of the globe.
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399
399,400,401,402
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THE FORM OF LIGHTNING-RODS.
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PROF. JOHN PHIN
THE season when the attention of the public will be directed to protection from lightning is now approaching, and it is of the utmost importance that correct views in regard to the construction and erection of lightning-rods should prevail.
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402
402,403,404,405,406,407,408,409,410
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THE HIGHER EDUCATION.
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F. W. CLARKE
EDUCATORS, to-day, are divided into two schools, especially with regard to colleges and universities. The older of these schools insists very vigorously upon the importance of thorough instruction in the so-called "dead languages," and makes all else subordinate to them.
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410
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ON THE MOTIONS OF SOUND.
I.—ACOUSTIC REVERSIBILITY.
II—STATE OF THE RESEARCH.1
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JOHN TYNDALL
ON the 21st and 22d of June, 1822, a commission appointed by the Bureau of Longitudes of France executed a celebrated series of experiments on the velocity of sound. Two stations had been chosen, the one at Villejuif, the other at Montlhéry, both lying south of Paris, and 11.6 miles distant from each other.
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426
426,427,428,429,430,431,432,433
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TELEGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDE.
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F. M. GREEN
IN the construction of new charts for the use of navigators, as well as in the correction of old ones, the assignment of different latitudes and longitudes to the same point, by various authorities, has always been a source of difficulty and embarrassment.
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433
433,434,435,436
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THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNK.
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CHARLES C. ABBOTT
WITH the first sweet blossoms of the Epigæa, and long before the foremost warbler greets his old-time home with gleesome songs, our little chipmunk has roused himself from his long winter's nap, and, sniffing the south wind, as it whirls the dead leaves about, scampers to and fro while the sun shines, and dives into his winter-quarters, it may be for a whole week, if the north wind whispers to the tall beech-trees.
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437
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THE ENDOWMENT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
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RICHARD A. PROCTOR
THE public endowment of science presents itself as a desirable supplement to the various means of maintenance considered in the previous part of this article. Those departments of science, in particular, which require costly instruments, which can only be pursued with the aid of trained assistants, or which, in other ways, involve greater expense than a man of ordinary means can afford, seem to require and deserve assistance from the national purse.
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THE PYROPHONE.
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M. DUNANT
SOUND is in general, according to natural philosophers, a sensation excited in the organ of hearing by the vibratory movement of ponderable matter, while this movement can be transmitted to the ear by means of an intermediate agent. Sound, properly called musical sound or tone, is that which produces a continuous sensation, and of which one can appreciate the musical value.
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ANIMAL PHOSPHORESCENCE.
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AMONG the marvels which excite the admiration of the student of Nature, not the least strange is the group of phenomena known under the name of Animal Phosphorescence. We are so accustomed to associate light with heat, and to consider that fire of some kind is necessary to its production, that the imagination is appealed to with unusual force, when we find light proceeding from the body of a living animal.
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458
458,459,460,461,462,463
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THE GLACIERS OF NORWAY.
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PROF. HENRY M. BAIRD A VISIT to Switzerland has of late become so easy and frequent an undertaking, that the glaciers around Mont Blanc and the Jungfrau have lost much of their romance and all their novelty. Every tourist climbs the Montanvert to enjoy the sensation of walking over the Mer-de-glace in midsummer, and creeps under the Rosenlaui to admire the deep-blue color of its icy vault.
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INFIRMITIES OF SPEECH.
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WHAT is necessary in order to our communicating ideas by speech? It is necessary, first of all, that ideas call up their appropriate symbols; secondly, that we remember how to say words; and, thirdly, that our organ of speech be entire—by which is meant, the whole of the muscular apparatus which is brought into action when one articulates.
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468
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ARCTIC ICE-TRAVELS.
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CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM
FORMERLY exploration in the arctic regions was entirely per formed by ships. On one or two occasions only were sledge-par ties dispatched for the purpose of discovery, and then on a very reduced scale. During the search expeditions, however, after Sir John Franklin and his gallant companions, the system of sledge-traveling was matured, and has now, owing to the genius of McClintock, Mecham, Hamilton, Osborn, and Richards, reached a high state of perfection.
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483
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DISTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE.
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ALL over the earth, the more largely where its beams reach the surface with the least diminution of heat, the sun is continually engaged in evaporating moisture from all exposed surfaces of water; this remains suspended in the atmosphere, and is carried about by the winds in the form of impalpable vapor or of clouds, till the point of saturation is reached, and the moisture falls again to the earth's surface in the form of rain, or snow, or hail.
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487
487,488
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CORRESPONDENCE.
SCIENCE AND THE BOOK OF GENESIS.
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I HAVE been an attentive reader of THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY for over two years, and in that time not one article, editorial, or note of correspondence, has escaped my notice. Also, I have been deeply interested from the first in all the advanced positions of the MONTHLY, and have noted its strictures on the narrow intolerance and ignorance of the clergy, and the many hints that they should enlarge the field of their observation and knowledge; and I am convinced that many of these hints are well-timed.
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488
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EDITOR'S TABLE.
RELATIVITY OF TRUTH.
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AMONG the higher influences of science to be realized in the future, will be its inculcation of more correct views concerning the relation of the human mind to truth. The effect of partisanship in politics and theology— the two great schools in which people are chiefly educated—is to establish the idea that truth is something absolute, that can be got once for all, and then can be comfortably held and professed forever afterward.
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491
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LITERARY NOTICES.
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
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THE PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY. By HERBERT SPENCER. A Quarterly Serial. Part III. D. Appleton & Co. Price, $2.00 a year. IT is an essential part of Mr. Spencer's method of treating sociological science to trace the genesis of the fundamental ideas which have become embodied in social institutions. The installment of his work now before us is devoted to the origin and development of religious ideas.
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MISCELLANY.
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Fish-Culture.—The results so far attained in this country in the artificial culture of fish are eminently satisfactory, and the efforts made by the various fisheries commissions to increase the supply of food for the people are worthy of all commendation.
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NOTES.
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ERRATA.—In the article entitled "Absorption of Water by growing Grain," on page 380 of present volume, for "1,796 grammes," read "1.796 gramme," and for "two-fifths of an acre," read "2.5 acres." WE note the formation of three new associations for the study of natural science, viz.: the Lyceum of Natural Sciences, at San Diego, California; the Natural History Club, of Vineland, New Jersey; and the Nebraska Association for the Advancement of Science, at North Platte, Nebraska.
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