Issue: 18741101

Sunday, November 1, 1874
NOVEMBER, 1874, TO APRIL, 1875.
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Friday, November 28, 2014

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
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THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE OYSTER.
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REV. SAMUEL LOCKWOOD
AN illiterate fisherman once became wellnigh eloquent in his effort to describe to us the treasures which the waters offered freely to man. Nature is, indeed, lavishly opulent. Among the foodtreasures of this bounteous harvest of the sea, the oyster ranks high in the general esteem.
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HERBERT SPENCER AND THE DOCTRINE OF EVOLUTION.1
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THE change that has taken place in the world of thought within our own time, regarding the doctrine of Evolution, is something quite unprecedented in the history of progressive ideas. Twenty years ago that doctrine was almost universally scouted as a groundless and absurd speculation; now, it is admitted as an established principle by many of the ablest men of science, and is almost universally conceded to have a basis of truth, whatever form it may ultimately take.
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HUMAN LOCOMOTION.
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THE movements executed by animals in transporting themselves from place to place have long engaged the attention of observers; and, as animals which travel on the land are more easily got at than those which frequent the sea and the air, it is the motions of such that we know most about.
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EDUCATED TO DEATH.1
A MOTHER’S STORY.
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AT the age of fifteen Mary was a remarkably fine and healthy girl: she seemed to be safely over the critical period, and, till after that time, had never suffered as many girls do at the commencement of their womanhood. Her thinking powers were quick and vigorous, and she was the pride of her teachers and joy of her parents.
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THE RESPIRATION OF PLANTS.
TRANSLATED FROM THE REVUE SCIENTIFIQUE, BY J. FITZGERALD, A. M.
LEAVES OF COMMON LILAC.
PHOSPHORIC ACID IN THE ASH.
LEAVES OF THE MAPLE.
PHOSPHORIC ACID OF THE ASH.
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ÉMILE ALGLAVE
THE functional contrast between the two organic worlds of plants and animals was, till lately, the groundwork of all scientific speculations. The labors of the most illustrious men of science had confirmed this theory; and then, too, it was in accord with all the known facts.
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FACIAL ANOMALIES.
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DR. KARL MÜLLER.
I WAS once sitting in a cool underground saloon at Leipsic, while without people were ready to die from the heat, when a new guest entered and took a seat opposite to me. The sweat rolled in great drops down his face, and he was kept busy with his handkerchief, till at last he found relief in the exclamation, “Fearfully hot!”
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THE CONFESSION OF A REFORMED SMOKER.
A RECORD OF OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS CONCERNING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF TOBACCO.
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FRANCIS GERRY FAIRFIELD
IN submitting the following observations as to the physiological effect of smoking, it is not my intention to discuss the tobacco question in an exhaustive manner, but, on the other hand, to limit my remarks to experiments tried and recorded in the course of the year ending July 10, 1874, and to the more general memoranda of the previous twelve years, during which the habit was formed, and, with the exception of brief paroxysms of abstinence, steadily developed.
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WOMAN SUFFRAGE AS AFFECTING THE FAMILY.1
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J. E. CAIRNES
I NOW turn to a side of the question on which Mr. Smith lays very great stress, and of which I am not in the least disposed to underrate the importance—the extension of the suffrage to married women. I do not yield to Mr. Smith, or to any one, in the firmness of my conviction that the family is at the bottom of our existing civilization, and I should, for my part, regard as dearly purchased any gain in material or political well-being which should introduce a jar or weakness into this pivot of our social system.
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JOSEPH PRIESTLEY.1
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T. H. HUXLEY
IF the man to perpetuate whose memory we have this day raised a statue had been asked on what part of his busy life’s work he set the highest value, he would undoubtedly have pointed to his voluminous contributions to theology. In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes.
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SKETCH OF PROFESSOR HAECKEL.
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ERNST HEINRICH HAECKEL, Professor of Natural History in the University of Jena, and one of the most eminent of German biologists, was born at Potsdam, in Prussia, on the 16th of February, 1834, and is consequently now but forty years of age.
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EDITOR’S TABLE.
MATTER AND LIFE.
MINERAL-COLLECTING.
PROFESSOR CAIRNES ON WOMAN SUFFRAGE.
THE RIGHTS OF ORIGINALITY.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE CHEMICAL CENTENNIAL.
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THE narrow limits of Prof. Tyndall’s address, the greatness of the questions it raised, and the diversity of views to which it has given rise, seem to have led to much erroneous interpretation of the document. Many newspapers have charged that the speech is an unprecedented and unwarranted aggression upon ground to which science has no rightful claim, and even the Scientific American describes the position taken by Prof. Tyndall as a “sudden invasion of the neutral territory lying between scientific and religious thought.”
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LITERARY NOTICES.
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
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DR. CLARKE did the country a service last year, by publishing his little volume entitled “Sex in Education,” in which he called attention to some physiological points in the school-experience of girls, in such a way as to provoke half a score of replies, and to bring the subject very effectually before the public.
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MISCELLANY.
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Artificial Butter.—The American Chemist for April contains a very full account of the manufacture of artificial butter, of which the following is a synopsis: Some years ago M. Mege Mouriez was commissioned by the French Government to make seme researches with a view to obtain a product suitable to take the place of ordinary butter, to be sold at a much lower price, and capable of being kept without becoming rancid.
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NOTES.
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DURING the Khivan expedition, the Russian army was fed chiefly on biscuits composed one-third of rye-flour, one-third of beef reduced to powder, and one-third of powdered sauerkraut. The men are said to have had a great relish for this food, and their good health during the expedition is attributed, in great part, to the use of it.
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