Issue: 18730801

Friday, August 1, 1873
AUGUST, 1873
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Tuesday, October 28, 2014

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
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ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS.1
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PROF. A. P. DESCHANEL
THE discovery that electricity could be transmitted instantaneously to great distances at once suggested the idea of employing it for signalling. Bishop Watson performed several experiments of this kind in the neighborhood of London, the most remarkable being the transmission of the discharge of a Leyden jar through 10,600 feet of wire suspended between wooden poles at Shooter's Hill.
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THE STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY.
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HERBERT SPENCER
IN the foregoing eight chapters we have contemplated, under their several heads, those " Difficulties of the Social Science " which the chapter bearing that title indicated in a general way. After thus warning the student against the errors he is liable to fall into, partly because of the nature of the phenomena themselves and the conditions they are presented under, and partly because of his own nature as observer of them—which by both its original and its acquired characters causes twists of perception and judgment—it now remains to say something about the needful preliminary studies.
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FOOTPRINTS IN THE ROCKS.
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CHARLES H. HITCHCOCK
SEVENTY years ago, a student belonging to Williams College, while holding the plough in his father's field at South Hadley, Massachusetts, turned over a flat slab of sandstone about three feet long. His attention was directed to what seemed to be a row of bird-tracks upon its surface.
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THE NATURE AND INFLUENCE OF FOODS.1
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EDWARD SMITH
BEFORE proceeding to consider the numerous foods which will come under review in the course of this work, it seems desirable to offer a few remarks of a general character on their nature and qualities, and the necessity for them. As a general definition, it may be stated that a food is a substance which, when introduced into the body, supplies material which renews some structure or maintains some vital process ; and it is distinguished from a medicine in that the latter modifies some vital action, but does not supply the material which sustains such action.
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LUNAR TEMPERATURES.
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POETS have so long sung of the cold; chaste Moon, pallid with weariness of her long watch upon the Earth (according to the image used alike by Wordsworth and Shelley), that it seems strange to learn from science that the full moon is so intensely hot that no creature known to us could long endure contact with her heated surface.
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THE PROBLEMS OF THE DEEP SEA.
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PROF. T.H. HUXLEY
ON the 21st of December, 1872, H. M. S. Challenger, an eighteen-gun corvette, of 2,000 tons burden, sailed from Portsmouth harbor for a three, or perhaps four, years' cruise. No man-of-war ever left that famous port before with so singular an equipment.
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CONDENSED MILK IN ENGLAND.
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DR. EDWARD LANKESTER
THE importance of milk as an article of diet is so great that anything offered as a substitute for it, or that renders it more available as food, demands attention. The composition of cow's milk is so nearly like woman's milk that the addition of a little water and sugar may be said to convert the one into the other; hence the practice of giving cow's milk to young children, and making it a substantial article of their diet long after they have cut their teeth and are able to masticate bread and meat.
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LOWLY VEGETABLE FORMS.
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REV. HUGH MACHMILLAN
LIFE is everywhere. " Nature lives" says Lewes ; " every pore is bursting with life ; every death is only a new birth ; every grave a cradle." " The earth-dust of the universe," says Jean Paul, " is inspired by the breath of the great God. The world is brimming with life ; every leaf on every tree is a land of spirits." The tendency to vegetate is a ceaseless power.
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THE WEATHER AND THE SUN.
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RICHARD A. PROCTOR
THERE are few scientific questions of greater interest than the inquiry whether it is possible to find a means of predicting the weather for a long time in advance. In former ages many attempts were made to solve this problem by a reference to the motions of the heavenly bodies.
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ORIENTALS AT VIENNA.
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THE anticipations with regard to the appearance made by Orientals at Vienna will be realized to the full, and doubtless the contact between the East and West will prove of mutual advantage. In fact, the peculiarly happy situation of the Austrian capital has not only given this Exhibition its distinctive character, but has developed its proportions in a degree that has falsified all the original calculations.
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THE MORBID EFFECTS OF HEAT.
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WM. J. YOTJMANS
THE healthy human body has a temperature which varies but little either way from 99° Fahr. The heat required to maintain this temperature is derived from the oxidation within the body of the elements of the food.
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SKETCH OF PROFESSOR COFFIN.
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FROM Sir Richard Coffin, Knight, who accompanied William the Conqueror to England in 1066, springs the genealogical tree that bears the name of Tristram Coffin, the pioneer owner of the island of Nantucket, whose American descendants have been engaged, to a large extent, in navigation.
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CORRESPONDENCE.
HYDROPHOBIA AN ACTUAL, NOT ALWAYS AN IMAGINARY DISEASE.
THE TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD.
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No doubt it is true that many persons have become ill, after being bitten by dogs, under a strong apprehension of hydrophobia. But, while scientific medical men ought to be, and mostly are, ready always to study " anew," that is, in view of all new facts, their oldest and most firmly-held opinions, yet some things have been clearly ascertained on this subject—not as matters of opinion, but as facts : First, that dogs (and, less often, some other animals) are subject to attacks of rabies, having a period of incubation, after being bitten, averaging, according to Youatt, five or six weeks.
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EDITOR'S TABLE.
SCIENCE IN EDUCATIONAL DISCIPLINE.
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WE note a very healthy curiosity on the part of many of our exchanges in regard to the progress of Mr. Spencer's discussion of Sociological Study. Now that he has considered the "Theological Bias," there is much solicitude expressed that he shall not forget the "Scientific Bias." "Well, he has not forgotten it.
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LITERARY NOTICES.
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POPULAR LECTURES ON SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS. By H. HELMHOLTZ, Professor of Physics in the University of Berlin. Translated by E. ATKINSON, Ph. D., P. C. S., Professor of Experimental Science, Hoff College. With an Introduction by Prof. TYNDALL. New York : D. Appleton & Co., 1873.
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MISCELLANY.
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Fossil Monkeys.—With the title " On the Primitive Types of the Orders of Mammalia Educabilia," Prof. E. D. Cope recently read a very remarkable paper before the American Philosophical Society. The professor referred to a previous description, by himself, of certain fossil remains under the name Anaptomorphus œmulus, in which he pointed out similarities of the teeth and other parts to like parts in monkeys and man.
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NOTES.
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THERE is in Cayenne a fly, called the Lucilia hominivorax (man-eater), which commits great havoc among the convicts sent out to that colony by the French Government. H. Charles Coquerel says that this fly lays its eggs in the mouth or nostrils of a sleeping convict, especially a drunken one, and that the offspring in their larval state usually bring about the death of their victim.
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