After reading Brickbats and Bouquets in the June issue, I feel that I must add my two cents worth. I agree with the majority of the letters published in that I see nothing wrong with the old system of figuring exposure. The new ASA exposure system will probably catch on, since there are so many people who only want a picture, but I for one will always use a camera which is marked in a meaningful way and use a light meter of the same type.
One of the things that’s been happening because of the new small flashbulbs is that they've sort of changed people's picturetaking habits. When people find a situation where there isn’t enough ambient light for candid color pictures or when they don’t have fast enough film in their cameras, they find that flashbulbs are easy to use.
A twin-lens reflex camera may contain as many as 300 moving parts, and it is a marvel to me that they all keep moving as well as they do for so long. Of course, this type of camera is by nature very sturdily constructed, but that shouldn't be taken as an invitation to subject it to unnecessary rough treatment such as I sometimes see amateurs cameras getting.
Shadows are an important part of practically every photograph. This is especially true of glamor because shadows can be used to bring out the roundness of the female face and figure. When you appreciate what shadows can do for you, soon you will understand that lighting is merely the placement of shadows where they can he used to advantage.
From time to time a lot of fuss is kicked up on the subject of museum acceptance of photography on the art level. The most recent controversy was inspired by the notorious incident of I’affaire “Photography in the Fine Arts," engineered by Ivan Dmitri, commercial photographer and (under his real name Levon West), erstwhile etcher, and abetted by New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art, where the show was hung last year and this.
In a world of ideas, where in the world, the photographer asks himself, can I get an idea for a picture story? A nice question. About three times a week I am asked by a photographer barren of ideas if I have one lurking around in my mind which I might give him.
Let’s face it—spotting is tiring, boring, time-consuming work. Any measures that you can take to avoid the need for doing it are well worth the effort. The time spent maintaining cleanliness throughout the making of a photograph will be much shorter than the time needed to fix up one made in a careless way.
For anyone who has watched the shank of the summer slip by before taking to the high road I offer the cheering intelligence that the golden days continue to glow in Southern California when the trees have turned to thoughts of fall almost everywhere else.
The traveler will find the makings of an interesting picture story or slide show this month in Puerto Rico’s Patron Festival of Nuestra Senora de la Monserrate. It runs from Sept. 3 through 8, and includes five days of street dancing, fireworks, fairs, contests, and games.
4th ASMP-University of Miami PHOTOJOURNALISM CONFERENCE
Bill Eppridge, a senior at the University of Missouri School of Journalism, won the POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Scholarship to the 4th Annual Photojournalism Conference, cosponsored by the University of Miami and the American Society of Magazine Photographers.
Because a Wyoming wild-life photographer needed a picture that made a twopound prairie dog look as big as a mountain. We now have a fascinating new Polaroid Land accessory. It's a pinhole attachment that slips on the lens of any model except 110 and 80, for use with the 3000 film, and permits sharpness from one foot to infinity.
This spring I had the privilege of addressing two groups of photojournalism students at the University of Miami in Florida and Kent State University in Ohio. On the chance that what I said may be of interest to readers I offer quotations from the talk as this month’s editorial:
How to guess exposure People outdoors: a POP PHOTO picture lesson How long a long lens? Capture autumn color with your camera What it takes to be a photojournalist PLUS: Reference Series on AVAILABLE LIGHT
A once-neglected format provides today’s most-overlooked value • Reflexes using the ‘square’ offer view camera vision and small camera mobility...and accessories make them even more versatile • • One of the ironies of today’s age of miniaturization—with its emphasis on transistors, compact cars, and food concentrates—is that the new "big" negative is the “small" negative of a decade ago: a square of only 2¼ inches.
Today’s reflexes give those who use them well the best of two worlds:
Many of the individual features of the 2¼ reflexes are found on other cameras of both smaller and larger size. Yet the fact that cameras using 120 film possess all these advantages and still remain easily portable makes them standouts.
One of the most ingenious exponents of 2¼-reflex photography is George Holton, a globe-girdling free lance who uses a fake lens to make realistic pictures. The excellent viewing systems of the 2¼-cameras are tailor-made for Ho1ton's unusual picture-taking technique.
Accessories for 2¼ cameras run in the hundreds. To show all would take a good part of this magazine. Instead, on these pages is a small selection of important old and new accessories that can turn the 2¼ from a job in macrophotography to scanning a 180-degree panoramic view.
A routine advertising job becomes an expensive and one-chance-only picture for a New York free-lance
Makes test shots
Problem of 1,100 models
Big day is overcast
ROBERT M. MOTTAR
This is the account of a picture that gave me a sleepless night; probably the most difficult photograph I've ever taken. The Chase Manhattan Bank, one of my clients, called me in one day to ask if I might make a photograph to serve the dual purpose of advertising and publicity.
An unbiased report on what you can expect when you use auxiliary lenses with your noninterchangeable cameras
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH AUXILIARY LENSES
HOW AUXILIARIES WORK
HOW SHARP IS SHARP?
WIDE ANGLE ATTACHMENT
DEPTH OF FIELD
LIST 1 “CUSTOM” AUXILIARY LENSES
LIST 2 GENERAL AUXILIARY LENSES FOR STILL CAMERAS
LIST 3 INTERCHANGEABLE FRONTLENS COMPONENTS
There’s no need to stand on the sidelines any longer while others “go wide-angle and telephoto.” The appearance of more and more lens attachments makes it possible for owners of noninterchangeable-lens cameras to partake of the wonderful world of picture variety which has long been available with equipment featuring true interchangeability.
With the introduction of electronic flash a few years ago, the future life of expendable flash seemed to be very short. These new units made flash photography much cheaper per exposure. However, far from dying but, flash bulbs have increased in popularity.
Speedy method can help you get some shots you might miss due to slow film-changing
Many a fine picture has been lost while the photographer was changing film. This happens often, especially with children and pets. The quicker one can reload, the better. With a little thought and practice, this operation can be compressed into a matter of seconds.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY $25,000 International Picture Contest
This month's WINNERS
Here is a selection from the black-and-white $50 U. S. Savings Bond winners that arrived before the June deadline. Next month: final preliminary winners. December : Grand Prizes!
Leonard S. Barnes, Syracuse, N. Y. Rosario Capotosto, Flushing, N. Y. Merton Gordon, Syracuse, N. Y. Anson M. Grover, Armonk, N. Y. Yasuo Haga, Niigata City, Japan George Harvan, Lansford, Pa. Duane Locke, Tampa, Fla. August Miller, Jr., Seattle, Wash.
When every minute counts, here’s what one magazine pro does to insure revealing portraits
Ordinarily we think of a portrait sitting as a carefully prearranged meeting which allows a photographer ample time to search out his subject and make a statement which reveals personality. However, to some photographers like Walter Daran, time is a real luxury.
GIANNI RANATI of Torino, Italy, was fixing some old furniture when his son and dog decided to help. Instead of shouting at the child to stop, Ranati got his camera and shot the situation. He used a 35-mm Exakta with a Primagon 35-mm lens, exposing Tri-X film at 1/25 sec and f/5.6.
one of the greatest frustrations to the color photographer is that his developed transparency is a relatively unalterable thing. He can’t, as with black-and-white, do much to improve or salvage a faulty shot once it has become a transparency.
Like most other commercial photographers, Benn Mitchell constantly aims for accuracy and color fidelity in the work he does for his highly critical clients. But when the studio day ends, when he seeks an outlet for his creative urge, Benn finds it in breaking even the most basic rules of color photography.
For colors stronger than the eye can see, try this sometimes misunderstood hut valuable accessory
A polarizing filter can be one of the most valuable tools in a color photographer’s gadget bag. Yet like any other tool, it must be used with an understanding of what it can and cannot do. Possibly the reason that more photographers don't use these filters is that the manufacturers overemphasize the "tricks" the filters do least well and do not talk about their best features.
1 Martin D. Koehler, River Grove. 111. Mr. Koehler says of the girl in the picture, Miss Carol Segermark, that he's used her as a model on a number of occasions: that she is, in fact, “probably my favorite model." it might have been easier to forgive this stilted pose and frozen expression if this had been the first time they met.
Universal finder offers lens preview for reflex 35’s
Plastic bag stores ferrotype tins safely
Moleskin prevents scratches on photographer’s glasses
Ammunition box makes waterproof camera case
Exposure calculator for flash pictures
Here’s the easy way to intensify development of local print areas. Take a moistener and fill it with concentrated paper developing solution. Sponge top permits you to apply the concentrate instantly, and exactly where desired. Moisteners are used to seal envelopes and to wet stamps: they are sold at stationers.
Landscapes are one of the most elusive of nature's subjects, perhaps because they are so often approached with a snapshooting attitude. All too often it’s a case of, “That's a pretty view! Let's stop the car and take a picture.” The car is stopped.
Film, as an old saw has it, is the cheapest thing in photography. That’s not true: the cheapest thing in photography is talk— talk about the great pictures that got away. But the point of the above-mentioned aphorism still is valid: What’s a few pennies’ worth of extra exposures compared to getting the picture you want? Modern 35-mm photojournalism is made possible by the concept of what might be called controlled waste, shooting around and behind every aspect of a subject or event in hopes of catching one or two key pictures worth a double-page spread in a national magazine.
Flash is one of the most convenient and portable sources of light for the making of pictures available today. With it, it is possible to shoot pictures indoors or out, day or night, without having to worry whether there is enough light to make an exposure.
The flash of light from a foil-filled flashbulb lasts approximately 1/25 of a second. By watching carefully through the camera viewfinder it is possible to get a vague general impression of how it lights up the subject. To have positive control, however, calls for the use of modeling lights.
Exposure with flashbulbs is based on two facts: (1) A particular type of bulb will always produce the same amount of light, and (2) as the subject moves further away from the light source, the less and less light will fall on it. The amount of light falling on the subject is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
Most flash pictures are made with a single flashbulb from a flashgun attached firmly to the camera. The gun is usually positioned a few inches above the camera and either slightly to the right or left of the lens. The effect produced is called "flatlighting." This means a person’s face is evenly illuminated with almost no shadows to create a three-dimensional effect.
Bounce flash is a lighting technique which is widely used to create a natural or existing light effect. Here, the light, instead of being pointed at the subject is directed toward a wall or ceiling. It reflects from this surface, spreading out and becoming diffused so that it illuminates the entire picture area with an even soft light that creates natural-looking highlights and open shadows.
One problem the photographer often faces when working with a single flash is that of getting illumination in depth. He may have to photograph a long banquet table or some other subject where one part of the subject is very close to the camera and the second is considerably further away.
Multiple flash is the use of more than one bulb, fired in synchronization, to create a picture. Its use makes possible a broad range of lighting effects. These run from lighting a large area in which you want to stop motion, to the efficient control of contrast between highlight and shadow areas. It also lends itself admirably to creative visual effects. Careful planning is the key to good multiple flash pictures.
In speaking of multiple flash, we refer to a situation where all the bulbs are fired at the same time by one battery unit. Generally, this means all the extensions will be plugged into the flashgun. With this type of setup, we run into the problem of the electrical resistances which result from the numerous contacts and the length of the electrical cord running from the flashgun to the extension or extensions.
At times, when utilizing multiple flash, it is impractical to plug extensions into the flashgun. Either the cords will show in the picture, they will be in the way of people moving around, or the lights have to be so far from the camera that normal flash cords will not reach.
When two or more bulbs are fired, there will be more light present than when one is fired. When all the bulbs are the same distance from the subject and pointed toward the same general area, instead of using the one-bulb guide number, multiply it by 1.40.
Synchro-sun is the combining of flash and sunlight to lighten up the dark shadows caused by the direct rays of the sun. The problem is to get enough flash into the shadows to show the details without throwing in so much that it overpowers the lighting effect of the sun.
Open flash is a technique for evenly lighting large dark areas. With this method, the camera shutter is opened, the flash is fired, and the shutter is closed. The flashgun is not connected to the camera. It can only be used for pictures where there is little or no movement.
Painting with flash is a variation of the open-flash technique. However, instead of spewing light over the entire area, it is controlled, being directed only to those parts that you want to be illuminated. The area must be completely dark.
One of the most exciting visual photographic effects is that of the blur of action with the main subject sharp and frozen in the midst of the action itself. It is made with a time exposure to record the blur of motion plus a flash exposure to freeze the action.
A technique which is not widely used but which can produce startling effects with flash is a series of repetitive exposures on one piece of film. With it, you can dissect an action into its component parts or produce multiple portraits of a person.
22 works on motion pictures cover technique, theory and history
TWO NEW ANTHOLOGIES
BOOK OF SCRIPTS
BOOK ON TECHNIQUE
HISTORIES AND BIOGRAPHIES
TWO ON DEMILLE
The past year has been an active one in the publishing of new books on the motion pictures. New works on the technique, theory, and history of movie-making have appeared, some of which are essential additions to the film-maker's library.
When we watch movement we are affected physically by what we see. This bodily. kinesthetic reaction is one of the basic appeals of many arts, from the dance to the circus. Most of us have had the experience of looking up at the top of a skyscraper with clouds moving behind it and having the feeling that the building was toppling over.
Magnasync Nomad is a remarkably ingenious system for shooting and showing lip-synchronized sound films with standard 16-mm equipment. Key to its approach is a 7-lb transistorized recorder/playback unit using split 16-mm (sprocketed) magnetic film with a Mylar base.
Rapidweld, a “film rejuvenation process” previously offered only for 16and 35-mm, has been announced for 8-mm by Rapid Film Technique, Inc. The firm describes it as: “. . . a combination chemical and mechanical process to repair film damage and remove scratches.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY FIELD-TESTS IMPORTANT NEW PRODUCTS
Radical shutter synchs electronic hflas to 1/125, has speeds to 1/2,000
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Konica Camera Co.
Konica Camera Co.
The Konica F is a 35-mm SLR possessing the quickest, most interesting, and fastest synching focal-plane shutter on the market today; and aside from being the only current camera with a top speed of 1/2,000 at all apertures, it is the only FP that can utilize fast-firing electronic flash at all speeds up to 1/125, minimizing some of the problems encountered with other FP cameras.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY FIELD-TESTS IMPORTANT NEW PRODUCTS
Meter-coupled 35-mm SLR has wide-ranging, versatile lens system
Carl Zeiss Inc.
Carl Zeiss Inc.
Complete with a battery of six lenses, the Contarex we have awaited since its introduction at Photokina in 1958 has finally reached our hands. The camera is an imposing 35-mm SLR possessing a built-in exposure meter which cross-couples with both the speed dial and diaphragm to permit full matching-pointer exposure control with the pointer visible both in the viewfinder and on the top deck.
STERO-DAPTOR stereo slide carrier projects a frame of a stereo pair through any TDC/B&H 35-nun still projectors. Two oilier models arc available, one for Argus projectors and another, for mor* than 75 popular projector models. Price. $4.50 Manufacturer is Stero-Daptor Co., 1630 Leavenworth St.. San Francisco 9.
PHOTO KEY CHAIN
PHOTO KEY CHAIN contains a picture of anything or anyone you wish. For $2.98. you get 25 key chains and 50 pictures (of the same subject). Send a negative or photo to Stadri Prods. Co., 14747 Sixth Ave., Whitestone 57, L. !.. N. Y., along with the payment.
MIRACOTE is the name of a liquid coating for transparencies claimed to preserve natural color, make the film scratchand dustproof, prevent cracking. lessen the possibility of the film popping during projection, to he resistant to finger marks, fungus, and mold, and also to eliminate scratches by recoating. One jar. coating up to 250 slides, is priced at $1.98. More details from Foralco Enterprises. 307 W. 38th St., New York 18.—^
by Richard Griffith. photographs by Gjon Mili and Al St. Hilaire, St. Martin's Press. New York. 119 pages, hard corer, $5.95 This book, which looks like an elaborate promotion piece for the current film Anatomy of a Murder, will probably not get the attention it deserves.
51st Exhibition of the London Salon of Photography, London, England Closes August 17, I960. Entry fee. 7/6d, is required for one section. If entering two sections, fee is 12/6d, or equivalent. On exhibit September 3 - October 1, 1960.
How can I avoid overexposure in close-up flash pictures? Today's faster films make it easier to take most types of pictures, but once in a while I want to take close-ups with flash. My camera won't stop down far enough to avoid overexposure at short distances, even with the smallest flashbulbs.