Your Let's Start Them Right! editorial (April, 1960) was excellent. This is my tenth year of teaching and I am still disturbed at the lack of interest by both students and teachers in this field of communication, science, and art. Hope you set your editorial sights on the college level next.
Recently, in an article based on the questions most frequently asked about color problems (November 1959, issue), I discussed the query that comes in my mail almost weekly: "Why aren't my color prints as good as the transparencies?" One answer lies in the fact that the materials available for making color prints inexpensively (the kind most amateurs complain about) are capable of making good prints from properly exposed transparencies, but because the prints are inexpensive this precludes test printing or masking that might be done with custom (and more expensive) prints.
Most photographs look fairly much alike in treatment as if they had been made by the same photographer. Now and then, a certain "difference" or individuality distinguishes the photographs of some from the herd. When this personal touch is seen consistently in a photographer's work, we call it his style, a manner of seeing and taking pictures.
As this issue reaches your home the midsummer shooting season will be in full swing, cameras will be blossoming forth thick as black-eyed susans in a hay field, and you will scarcely be able to toss a burned-out M-25B flashbulb in any park or city street without hitting a fellow photographer.
Many of the disadvantages of working in sunlight, as discussed in last month's column, can be overcome by moving your model into the shade. Since shade light is soft you need not worry about harsh shadows nor does the light change angle during the day as with sunlight.
I have been debating whether it's possible to write a column about color as it applies to the twin-lens reflex, and as you can see. I've decided it is. Sure color film is color film, no matter what its size but there are a few specific points to be made.
After a year and a half of question marks, the first of the Mohicans has at last arrived. A production-model repeating AG-1 gun is about to reach your dealers' shelves. Its name is the Accura Six-Gun AG Automat, and it will add an important new weapon to the arsenal of the flash photographer, just as its namesake in the Old West added power to the hands of the frontiersman.
The common step-ladder may be your answer for those high-angle shots, when your tripod just isn't tall enough. It provides support both for you and your camera. To mount latter, drill a hole through ladder's top deck, and bolt tripod head down, as shown.
One had only to view the films of the magnificent ceremony that attended the marriage of Margaret Rose to realize what a marvelously photogenic place England really is. While all the panoply is not perpetually on public display, of course, there is enough of it that is part of the regular life of London to delight the traveling picture-taker.
How would you like to shoot a real western movie or picture story? You can with fast film and a long lens, if you happen to be vacationing in North Dakota this month. Old Four Eyes, the drama of Theodore Roosevelt's adventures in the North Dakota badlands, complete with cowboys, vigilantes, horse thieves, and cattle rustlers.
The secret of effective film agitation is a matter of adopting a foolproof system for your own needs. We'll discuss specifics later—first let's see what happens if you don't agitate at all. When your film begins to develop, silver salts are converted to metallic silver in the proportion to which the film areas were exposed to light.
On May 20, the second edition of Ivan Dmitri's controversial Photography in the Fine Arts exhibit opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Though the show is bigger and better than the first one it still sulfers from the faults inherent in promotional projects.
A special feature— 2½×2¼—today's big negative Benn Mitchell's wild, wild color proves three wrongs can make a right All about supplementary lenses The picture worth a $10,000 model fee PLUS Reference Series and Fact Sheet on FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY
Two 35-mm men named in University of Missouri-Encyclopaedia Britannica-N.P.P.A. 1960 Awards MAGAZINE: BURT GLINN is a 34-year-old free-lance photographer affiliated with Magnum. His picture stories have appeared in Life, Esquire, and Holiday.
You are competing with 500 other magazine and newspaper photographers covering Khrushchev's tour of the United States. What would you do to achieve a unique and compelling picture worth a full page in Life? You have been granted on short notice precisely four minutes to photograph Fidel Castro during a cabinet meeting.
Most newspaper photographers are just too blase or disinterested to give any thought to photo contests, especially when the top awards consist largely of prestige and not cash prizes. Yet when I saw the entries of the finalists in the News Pictures of the Year competition.
Here are professional techniques to help you catch life on the run
The whole problem of successful grab shooting is how to reduce to a minimum the time between seeing a good picture and pressing the shutter button. If you can do this and still produce pictures that are technically good, then a myriad of new picture-taking possibilities will open up to you.
There are many short-focal-length lenses The information here will help you choose which is best for what
First in a three-part series on all kinds of accessory lenses
SO WHO'S NORMAL?
WHAT CAN A WIDE-ANGLE DO FOR YOU?
Cormparative coverage of various wide-angle lenses
SELECTED WIDE-ANGLE-LENS DIRECTORY
GEORGE D. MARGOLIN
There's a whole world of wideness between the 50-mm "normal" lens and the 21-mm ultra-wide, and this world is marked into little segments at 21-, 25-, 28-, and 35-mm. With this choice before him, which lens or lenses should the rangefinder-camera owner choose?
An exciting play of contrasts—tiny active figures against massive, static, vegetable life; light and dark; children and a mysterious universe—make Dave Heath's landscape with running figures a picture worth studying. He's violated conventional rules of composition by placing the center of interest in the extreme lower-right-hand corner, but we think it works: the horizontal bar of sunlight and the dark mass of the tree hold the picture together.
A routine photo job turns into a dramatic, memorable picture story for a Paris-based free-lance
Has trouble before arriving
A second self takes over
DID YOU KNOW THAT...
Waits hours for pictures
Luckily he picks winners
EDDY VAN DER VEEN
It was two o'clock in the morning and the sprint finale of the six-day bicycle race inside the huge, smoky vastness of the Velodrome d'Hiver had begun. In this Parisian version of Madison Square Carden more than 100 virtually exhausted bicycle racers forced themselves into the last five rounds of this 40-miles-an-hour competition while thousands of fans massed around the track, almost filling its expanse with their shouting.
Lighting influences photographic quality perhaps more than any other single factor. You must consider it (and control it whenever possible) every time you take a picture. You could spend a lifetime mastering the subtle variations of lighting for photography, but a few minutes spent studying the demonstrations on this page will give you the basic situations to look for.
Next to baseball, heat and humidity seem to be the chief topics of conversation this time of year. And for photographers this is not just idle chatter. Hot, humid summer days and darkrooms just don't seem to get along together. As humidity and temperature go up outside, excessive moisture becomes a problem in darkrooms over most of the country—especially cellar darkrooms.
Our reporters, the first ever to watch this top TV show in production, show and tell what it was like when Charles Collingwood came to call
H. M. KINZER
It took only 12 minutes to unfold on your TV screen a few weeks ago, but actually it took the skill and hard work of three dozen people from pre-dawn until after dark on a warm spring day to create. "It" was Person to Person's visit to famed portraitist Philippe Halsman, seen on most CBS stations on June 17.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY $25,000 International Picture Contest
These readers won $50 shares of $25,000 prize money in our International Picture Contest
All the entries are in for 1960's International Picture Contest, and monthly winners will be appearing for two more months. Grand Prize winners will be announced in the December issue, rather than November as earlier indicated. Note that foreign entries continue strong, especially in black-and-white, with 18 of the 40 awards going outside the U.S. And for the first time three entrants have won multiple prizes in a single month.
How DAVID DOUGLAS DUNCAN used 35-mm to record ART TREASURES OF THE KREMLIN
DAVID DOUGLAS DUNCAN
The Kremlin exists as a book because the Volga froze earlier than usual in the autumn of 1956. Assigned by Collier's to shoot a color story on the river, I was working in collaboration with John Gunther while he completed research which later became the best-seller, Inside Russia Today.
Hera's a riddle that you'll be able to solve easily: When is a slow film fast enough and a fast one too sensitive? The answer is, of course: when the light is bright enough for one and too bright for the other. Sounds simple doesn't it? Given enough light you can take a picture with anything.
Four selections from the color section of one of the oldest photographic salons in the country
The four color photographs on these pages were selected from this year's accepted entries in the world's largest color photography salon, and one of the few that has solved the problem of exhibiting small-format color transparencies. During the run of each of its annual exhibitions, the Rochester International Salon of Photography schedules twice-weekly slide shows, and slides, like those shown here, are projected for visitors to the salon, which is held at the Memorial Art Gallery in Rochester, N.Y.
1 D.J.O. Lewis, Nairobi, Kenya, Africa. The rainbow and color were made for each other, at least from the photographer's viewpoint. The phenomenon is practically lost in black-and-white. Here is an unusually fine example in a beautiful setting and impressive composition.
Reflex sighting, long popular on still cameras, can be added to your movie apparatus. Elgeet's $9.95 Cine Flex finder has fields indicated for a number of 8-mm and 16-mm lens fields. Before-the-lens viewing provided by this accessory can prove a great aid in centering titles and in the precise framing of close-ups.
It has been emphasized repeatedly in these pages that one of the best places for amaleurs to learn film technique and get ideas for their own films is to see as many good professional and amateur movies as possible. Here are some of the things that I have seen lately and recommend to you.
This is the first 8-mm movie projector in the well-known Canon line to reach the Ameriean market. Specifications include 400-ft film capacity: all-gear drive: single knob control for forward/reverse projection and power rewind; variable speed control; film threading cheek: snap-locked sprockets, framing and tilting adjustments.
How Filters Work Filter Construction and Care Fitting Filters Using Several Filters at One Time Filters for Black-and-White Exposure Filters for Color Creative Use of Filters for Color CC Filters Decamired Filters for Color Copying Polarizing Filters
FILTER LIGHTENING AND DARKENING CHART FOR BLACK-AND-WHITE
WITH COLOR FILM
ABSORPTION CHART OF FILTERS USED FOR COLOR
Filters are used for two main purposes: to assure "normal-looking" picture results, and to exaggerate rendition of tone or hue for creative effect. In either case, the correct filter removes just the right amount of color from white light during exposure.
There are three basic filter types: 1. The laminated filter—a sandwich of two pieces of optically flat glass with a colored, gelatin sheet cemented in between, or a sandwich in which the adhesive holding the two pieces of glass together contains the colorant.
When all the special terminology is disregarded, there are only two basic methods for fitting glass filters to your lens. A few other systems combine these methods. Ready-to-attach filters permit you to fasten the filter directly to the lens mount and are handy for the occasional filter user.
Either a well-made laminated filter or optical glass one will give good results if you use only one filter at a time. Fall-off in sharpness can occur, however, if several are combined for the same shot. As a rule of thumb, try limiting yourself to two laminated filters or three optical ones, with 35-mm and 2¼ negatives which will be enlarged to 11×14.
Medium-Yellow (K2). First choice with many photographers because it is the corrective filter in sunlight for both "ortho" and "pan" film. It corrects by cutting down blue and most ultraviolet to darken blue skies moderately. Haze will be reduced and rendition of most other tones will be normal.
Most filters hold back an appreciable amount of the light, so it is, of course, necessary to increase exposure. In color, this increase is given as a new exposure index to use with your meter (or when finding flash guide numbers) or as the amount to open up in f-stops.
Many pictures made outdoors have a bluish cast when no filter is used. The reason "why" is quite logical. Daylight film is balanced for a mixture of yellowish sunlight and blue skylight. On a cloudy or overcast day, the sunlight is missing.
Note: Set your meter to the exposure index (E.I.) directly underneath the filter recommendation, or in the case of flash, use this index when looking for the guide number on the bulb carton. When blue flash is not suitable as the main light source, it can, of course, be used in daylight as flash fill-in.
Some of the most pleasing and satisfactory color shots are obtained by purposely deviating from normal results. You may want to accent the blue of early morning before sunrise or of a view made on a rainy or overcast day. At other times, only an overly warm cast will show the mood of the scene before you.
For even greater control, many photographers switch over to CC (Color Compensating) filters which are readily available in gelatin form in colors and densities shown in the chart below. They fit into a special filter holder. Like other filters for color, CC filters have an over-all effect which is most noticeable with pastel subjects and scenes.
Simplification is featured in this special system for color which uses only bluish and reddish filters. A decamired value, based on color temperature, is assigned to each film type and light source. Subtraction, then, provides the number of the filter required.
With color film. Be sure light and film are of the same type, then use any additional filters required to produce a visual result on film that closely matches the original. With black-and-white. Specific filter suggestions for different subjects and pan film (used by most people), are given below: Blueprints: For good contrast, a medium-red filter.
The gray polarizing filter can be used with both color and black-and-white. Unlike most filters, it does not affect the color of white light. Instead it holds back rays travelling in a certain plane. Blue skies are darkened without changing other color rendition; haze is penetrated without warming the scene; nonmetallic reflections at certain angles can be eliminated.
Neutral density filters cut down light uniformly without changing color rendition. They are useful because some of today’s fast films are too fast for many cameras, or force you to shoot in bright sun at a small lens opening and fast speed.
The medium-red (A) filter also passes invisible infrared rays (see diagram, page 2), and is generally recommended for making pictures outdoors on infrared film such as Kodak Infrared Film (IR 135). Very dark rendition of blue skies and almost white tone of greenery are typical; haze penetration is great.
Most of the information already given applies equally well to still and motion pictures. In movies, however, it is best to keep filtration standard and to a minimum, so that results will be reasonably uniform in scenes that might be edited.
What happens if agitation is less than recommended?
Do floodlamps become weaker as they darken through use?
Is there any advantage in mixing your own solutions?
What causes bright light streaks?
What's the safe way to clean a lens?
How can you cut printing time?
Are midget bulbs right only for small reflectors?
What is a good tool for silhouetting subjects?
When I turn my tank upside-down and back three times each minute, in line with the ASA agitation system. I usually encounter uneven development. Density at the edges of my negatives is increased. The tank manufacturer divises agitation by slowly inverting the tank no more often than once each minute.