We disagree 100 percent with the conclusions reached by Bruce Downes in his article on the Pulitzer Prize. We will take the Pulitzer style of photographic journalism every day in the week as compared with the “nothing” pictures in your mag.
A round-up of recent developments and significant trends
Norman C. Lipton
3-D Prices Down. Stereo equipment is becoming more and more reasonable as the camera industry strives to bring the present 3-D boom to the level of several years ago. Latest entrant in the field is the Edixa Stereo Camera with Coupled Rangefinder (Model IIa) priced at only $79.50—distributed by Camera Specialty Co., Bronxville, N. Y. This is a product of Wirgin Brothers Camera Works, Wiesbaden, German Federal Republic (West).
Stereo’s biggest thrills lie in looking at pictures, and this month we have news of three specialized viewers that have just been introduced. They aren’t much alike, but each one fills a particular need. The economy package, beyond all doubt, is the Arcadia stereo viewer. It sells for $5.95—and that includes batteries and bulb in case you are wondering.
Don't throw away small amber-colored jars of the type used to package instant coffee. These jars, which have an 8-oz capacity and are equipped with screw-on lids, can be put to good use in the darkroom. One quart of powdered developer can be apportioned into four of the jars and the lids closed tightly, protecting the contents and helping to conserve the developer until required. The small jars are easy to handle and take up very little space.
One very fine antidote to the hot-rod movement, or Teen-age Accident About to Happen, is organized photographic activity at the high-school level. Kids always will want to try something daring or unusual, which is why they sometimes see how quickly the family crate will reach 40 mph from a standing position, why they barrel through intersections without a care in the world, and why they fool around with dual exhausts and such.
35-mm is enjoying its greatest boom today. Every month news of new products all over the world is dominated by new 35-mm cameras, equipment, and accessories. At least as many 35-mm cameras are manufactured today as the total of all other camera types, excluding the drugstore box.
The public’s interest in great photographs was powerfully demonstrated by attendance figures for Edward Steichen’s great show, The Family of Man, which hung in New York’s Museum of Modern Art from January to May. Two hundred seventy thousand people saw the 503 photographs—a greater number than has visited any Museum exhibition in the past 15 years.
FOR MILLIONS of photographers, 35-mm means more than just a film or camera size : it symbolizes an approach to pictures, a philosophy of photography . . . even a way of life. Perhaps no invention since George Eastman produced the roll-film camera has so revolutionized the art of seeing and taking pictures or acquired prestige and popularity so rapidly.
The short focal length of a normal lens for a 35-mm camera provides great depth of field even at relatively wide apertures, thus making focusing less critical and permitting interesting effects of near-to-far sharpness. In the group of parade watchers, above, camera was focused about one third of the way back and stopped down to f/8. Everything is sharp except closest foreground figures.
CHILDREN’S expressions are fleeting, candid, fragile. Capturing them requires a special kind of camera technique, for which the 35-mm is an ideal instrument. It helps in “stalking” young subjects; many experts feel the eye-level operation makes the camera more nearly a “part of the eye,” and speeds the reflex action of trigger squeezing.
These are several top 35-mm cameras that evolved from the first miniature designed by Oskar Barnack of Germany
Here are the six basic classifications into which more than 10 different makes of modern 35-mm cameras fall
SOME forty-odd years ago an optical engineer named Oskar Barnack, in the process of designing a motion-picture camera, decided to build a very small still camera with which he could make test exposures on 35-mm movie film. Barnack’s prototype so intrigued Ernst Leitz, Sr., that after ten years of experimentation and modification the first Leica was introduced to the world at the 1925 Leipzig Fair.
A GREATER VARIETY of better 35-mm black-and-white films is available today than ever before. But this abundance of fine films can be a mixed blessing. Too many photographers switch from brand to brand and from type to type with such frequency that they never really learn how best to work with any one film.
FOR PHOTOGRAPHY under poor light conditions, nothing can match the 35-mm camera, Its lenses are faster, focusing is generally easier, it is more maneuverable in the candid situations that account for most available-light pictures, and its big film load makes possible three times as many shots between reloads.
Ansco combination daylight-loader and film package
Cassettes: a long-term investment
Cartridges: economical, handy
Special features of 27½-ft rolls
FILMS AVAILABLE IN BULK LOADS
CHANCES are that if you’ve been using a 35-mm camera for some time, you're already aware that one of the advantages of miniature photography is its economy of operation. When you buy 35-mm film, you get a lot of potential pictures in a convenient, small package for very little money.
THE CURRENT widespread enthusiasm for the 35-mm miniature camera and for color photography are very probably the most closely related phenomena on the photographic scene today. Shooting color in 35-mm costs less per shot, and each frame returns from the processor in a sturdy pasteboard 2x2 mount for ease in viewing or projecting one’s creative efforts.
The right combination for every film and light source
Skylight and U.V. Filters
LITTLE WONDER if the myriad filters for color photography sometimes bewilder the beginner. Faced with a confusing array of conversion, color-compensating, light-balancing, polarizing, and other filters, often with each manufacturer following his own nomenclature, the newcomer to photography is tempted to throw up his hands in despair.
WHEN THE SUBJECT is inanimate, there is no need for fast lenses and shutters, or for-speedy camera operation. Still, the 35-mm camera has its advantage of relatively greater depth of field, when desired; and the wide aperture is indispensable when the subject is poorly lighted—as is David Vestal’s kitchen-tabletop.
You can control space and perspective by using interchangeable lenses
Subject distance—not the focal length— controls perspective
If image size is the same depth of field is the same
How to expand and compress space relations
Here are some typical long-focus lenses
Here are some typical wide-angle lenses
THE modern miniature camera's ability to accept interchangeable lenses is one of the keys to its tremendous flexibility. Is your normal lens too short to catch the facial expression of the pitcher from your seat high in the stands? A few seconds is all the time needed to switch to one of the hundreds of telephoto lenses up to 1,000-mm in focal length which are on the market today.
DEVOTEES of the miniature camera are fond of saying it can do anything. This isn’t necessarily so, but it’s interesting to see how many different kinds of photographs it can make well. Landscapes, for example, the traditional province of the larger camera.
Exposure and development are equally important in 35-mm work
Cleanliness begins with the camera...
Development of miniature negatives requires careful attention to cleanliness, exposure and the make-up of film processing solutions
Processing for optimum picture quality
Processing for maximum film speed
ONE OF THE SADDEST creatures of our technological civilization is the photographer who has forgotten what photography is all about. Photography means making photographs. Cameras, films, lenses, meters, darkroom equipment, chemicals, and all the related gadgets and gizmos have no purpose save to help us make better pictures.
High-quality prints can be made from miniature negatives.
THE problems of enlarging 35-mm negatives are like those of any other negative format—only more so. Because our negatives measure slightly less than one inch high and one and a half inches long, almost every enlargement is a “big blowup.”
A top technician tells how to shoot 8and 16-mm films by existing light without special equipment or super-high-speed emulsions
“There’s not enough light to take movies!” How many times have you used this excuse, and believed your statement was true? But was it true? Available-light black-and-white motion pictures with 8or 16-mm cameras without special equipment can be made more frequently than you think.
Attachment converts normal 8or 16-mm movie lens to telephoto and wide-angle
Using wide-angle side
Normal lens, no attachment
Using telephoto side
AN INGENIOUS, low-cost attachment ($24.95) that changes all 8-mm and most 16-mm normal movie-camera lenses into wide-angle and telephoto lenses is being manufactured by Ednalite Optical Go., Inc., Peckskill, N. Y. The Dual Tens is compact (can fit easily into a vest pricket) , and screws quickly into an adapter ring on the normal camera lens. It gives photographers having only one lens, three-lens versatility with a minimum of effort involved.
MAKRO-KILAR lens (see POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY March 1955, pg. 86) is now available in two models for the 35-mm single-lens reflex Rectaflex camera. This lens can be used for normal, wide-angle, and close-up photography without the use of supplementary attachments. Makro-Kilar D permits focusing from inf. to about three in., providing a maximum image-to-subject ratio of 1:1:1. Makro-Kilar E permits focusing from inf. to about five in. from subject, providing a maximum image-to-subject ratio of 1:2. Other features are aperture range from f/3.5 to f/22; 40-mm focal length; three scales, one for distance, another indicating automatically image-to-subject ratio, and a third which automatically indicates the amount of exposure increase necessary when taking close-ups. Distributed by OmicRectaflex, 202 W. 40th St., New York 18, prices are $114.95 for the D and $89.95 for the E.
SUPER BALDINA outfit
SUPER BALDINA outfit consisting of this 35-mm camera, case, and B-C flashgun, is announced by Kling Photo Corp., 235 Fourth Ave., New York 3. The camera features a 50-mm f/2.8 lens in a telescoping mount; nine shutter speeds to 1/300 sec & B; self-timer; synchronized for regular and electronic flash; rapid film advance which also cocks shutter; double-exposure prevention; automatic exposure counter; depth-of-field scale; coupled rangefinder combined with life-size viewfinder in one window. Price is $69.50. Another outfit, the Baldina 35 (similar to above but without rangefinder) is priced at $49.95.
GRAFLEX INC., 154 Clarissa St., Rochester 8, N. Y., announces the availability of a new Compur shutter as standard equipment on the Speed Graphic press camera. Featuring a Kodak Ektar f/4.7 lens, the shutter uses a bi-post synch connector; is equipped with a press focus lever and an ASA bayonet synchronizer fitting.
SUPER BALDAX is introduced by Kling Photo Corp., 235 Fourth Ave., New York 3. Designed for compactness, it measures 5x3¾xl¾ in.; takes 12 2¼x2¼ exp on No. 120 rollfilm; has a coupled rangefinder and viewfinder combined in one unit; shutter has nine speeds from one to 1/300 sec & B; full flash synchronization at all speeds; double-exposure prevention; depth-of-field scale. With an 80-mm Rodenstock f/2.9 lens in helical focusing mount, price is $79.95.
135-mm SOLIGOR f/4.5 lenses
135-mm SOLIGOR f/4.5 lenses for the Argus C2 and C3 cameras are announced by Interstate Photo Supply Corp., 17 W. 17th St., New York 11. Coupling to gear between rangefinder and lens, an initial adjustment locks it in place. Other features are click stops; depth-of-field scale: compensating viewfinder field mask; front and rear lens caps. Price of $49.95 includes registration, 6-month guarantee, and fitted box. More information available.
VIDOSCOPE is the name of a 16-mm anamorphie lens that fits all 16-mm projectors. The design is exactly like the 35-mm lens now used in Cinemascope projection. Walter Futter, 625 Madison Ave., New York City, claims this lens improves picture clarity and eliminates distortion. An adapter is supplied for attachment to most projectors and a special adapter is available for attachment to Jan or Bell & Howell professional projectors. Price is approximately $150 and additional information is available.
TDC PROJECTORS, for 2x2 slides are announced in two new models, the Deluxe Model D (300-watt) and the Streamliner 500 (500-watt). A new feature is wind-tunnel cooling; air is scooped through a chamber beneath the projector' and up through the cooling chamber at high speed. This is claimed to prevent cardboard slides from “popping” and slipping out of focus under normal operating conditions. In the case, storage space is provided for six or more Selectrays. Both models have a 5-in. ƒ/3.5 coated lens. Manufactured by Bell & Howell, 7100 McCormick Rd., Chicago 45, prices (incl. case and Semimatic changer) are, respectively, $74.75 and $79.95.
REALIST INC., 315 W. Court St., Milwaukee, Wis., introduces a viewer featuring quick-change cartridges for converting the unit from battery to 110-v illumination at the turn of a release button. Other features are thumb-wheel focusing at film plane; color-corrected optical-glass lenses; full color-temperature control with index marks for resetting. Price is $24.50.
DUAL BEAM FOLDING REFLECTOR
DUAL BEAM FOLDING REFLECTOR is claimed by Camera Optics Corp., 101 W. 47th St., New York 36, as being the first of its type to be made of rustproof stainless steel. It can be locked in either of two positions, for concentrated or pan light. Price of reflector alone is $2.95 but is available also on four flashgun models, prices ranging from $7.95 to $16.50. More information available from the manufacturer.
AMGLO CORP, 2037 W. Division St., Chicago 25, introduces a 28-oz speedlight which may be operated from an a-c line or from a choice of three sizes of battery packs. Guide numbers range from 140 for black-and-white (over 600 when Power Doubler is used), and from 45 to 120 for color films. Recycling time is four sec on a-c operation. 60-A lamphead with an average life of over 100,000 flashes, is $69.95, and battery packs are priced at $35, $39.95, and $55. Power Doubler (built into heavy-duty pack) is available separately for $24.95.
CABLE RELEASES in lengths of 10, 20, and 40 ft are announced by Spiratone, Inc., 49 W. 27th St., New York City. These accessories feature an oversize plunger for easy gripping; a special booster arrangement assuring a smooth stroke; universal-type threading; threaded parts for disassembly if adjustments are necessary. Prices are, respectively, $5.49, $8.49, and $14.49.
SET FOCUS ENLARGER
SET FOCUS ENLARGER for 35-mm negative or transparencies is announced by the Boyer Engineering Co., 7112 East Wardlow Rd., Long Beach 8, Calif. No adjustments are necessary since it is claimed to be always in focus. Other features are: print size of 3½x5 in; 50-mm f/4.5 lens; ventilated, 50-watt lamp; polished film gate. The price is $27.50.
PROXISCOPE SR., a universal tripod and copying-stand accessory for critical close-up work, is an elevator attachment as well. The camera platform rides on a geared monorail for a distance of four in. in either direction. Locking lever is positioned alongside the focusing knob. Two tripod sockets (at right angles to each other) permit vertical or horizontal positioning of the rail. A reversible tripod mount allows the Proxiscope to point downward below tripod-head level. Price is $4.95 and the distributor is Spiratone, Inc., 49 W. 27th St., New York 1.
POLAPAN 200 AND 400 are the new, faster films for the Polaroid Land cameras. They are claimed by Polaroid Corp., Cambridge 38, Mass., to have greater depth, richness, and exposure latitude than the currently available Type 41 film. With the faster 400 (ASA index) film, adequate illumination for photography is supplied by a 150-watt lamp. Presently available for the Speedliner and Pathfinder cameras, the film is priced at $1.98 for PolaPan 200 and $2.19 for the 400; both are eight-exposure rolls.
WEBSTER UNIVERSAL ILLUMINATOR
WEBSTER UNIVERSAL ILLUMINATOR has been developed to provide an even cone of diffused illumination when lighting objects for low-power magnification, for photographing small objects, and for flood or cross lighting in macrophotography. Arm supports are fitted with a spring-loaded sliding clamp for adjustment to any combination of height or angle. Operation is 110-120 volts a-c. Price, incl. cord switch, is $23.50. Technical data sheet available from Webster Instrument Inc., 11856 Mississippi Ave., Los Angeles 25.
MICROSCOPE ADAPTER is designed to fit the Hasselblad 2¼x2¼ single-lens reflex camera. When fitted to a microscope it permits the camera to be used in many phases of scientific, medical, and research photography. The bellows of the adapter is tipped with a velvet-lined connector which fastens to the microscope. Price is $24. More information available from WilloughbysWholesale, 110 W. 32nd St., New York 1.
MATTE BOX and sunshade for 8- and 16-mm movie cameras is designed for use with 2and 3-in.-square glass or gelatin filters and accessories. Constructed of aluminum castings with dural front rods, the base supplied will fit all cameras and has both small and large tripod threads. Taking all lenses from 15to 152-mm focal length, rubber caps are supplied to eliminate flare when lens used is smaller than back opening. Interior is finished in optical black. A finder extension bracket or adapters may be required for some professional cameras. Price, incl. fiber filter holders, is $44.95. Manufacturer is National Cine Equipment, Inc., 209 W. 48th St., New York 36.