would reduce the total light output proportionally. Effective flash durations at ½ peak and ⅓ peak for various capacitances are listed. The principle, obviously, can be applied to electronic flash units of other manufacture. The single reservation is that the shortening of effective flash duration may result in lower than “normal” contrast and film speeds due to changes in reciprocity characteristics—unless compensated for by somewhat extended development.
While stationed at an aerial gunnery school on the Mexican-American border as a photographer during the war, I was assigned to photograph a large group of Mexican and American army officers, most of whom were of general rank. The locale for the photograph was a Mexican bar across the border.
I have recently seen some flashbulbs with a filter coat on them. I think they are called “C” coated. Are they good for color?—G. M., Buffalo, N. Y. Yes, there have been several brands of flash lamps on the market with coatings for use with indoor (Type A) films.
There’s a lot between the paper covers of a small book published recently by Jae Greenberg of New York. It’s Three-dimensional Projection by Earl E. Krause, APSA, Fellow of the Stereo Guild, former vicechairman of the PSA stereo division and founder of Jackson Park Camera Club’s stereo section.
About a year ago I started quite a ruckus by commenting frankly about PSA honors. I heard from far and wide— I w'as commended and berated. What’s happened meanwhile? Well, at the 1954 PSA convention in Chicago, a lot of hard-working, deserving folks got their APSA, FPSA, and so on.
Well it appears there is no longer any excuse for faulty technique in availablelight photography. Critics of the excessive grain, fuzziness, and “soot-and-whitewash” contrast which are sometimes associated with this difficult and specialized kind of picture-making now have a sound argument.
‘Pictures from Readers’ wants good color pictures from you.
What subjects? All those you see here—and more!
JUST THREE YEARS AGO last month, we started something big. We inaugurated a color Pictures from Our Readers feature, and solicited contributions from you, our audience. We opened with a page of reproductions from winners in the color division of our annual contest, and promised to “resume it as soon as you, the readers, submit enough acceptable pictures.”
HAVE YOU ever missed an opportunity to take a wonderful color picture because you had the wrong film in your camera—tungsten type, for instance when the situation called for daylight? If so, you probably failed to read the instruction sheet, which would tell you that you lost your picture needlessly.
The improvement in available-light technical quality is symbolized in these two pictures. Compare an extreme example of the old, above, with the new, right, in terms of grain, sharpness, and tonality. BACK IN THE OLD DAYS there was a special breed of pioneering photographers—the available-light boys—who waged war upon the tyranny of artificial-light sources. To them the cry “get a flashbulb!” was as the cry “get a horse!” to some earlier pioneers.
AVAILABLE-LIGHT photography moved into high gear late last year when Eastman Kodak released its new high-speed 35-mm and roll-film Tri-X. This modern miracle of the emulsion maker’s art simultaneously blew effective film-speed indexes sky high and established new standards for photographic quality with available light.
THE basic problem of available-light photography is to get as much effective film speed as we need to take pictures, but to pay for this film speed with the smallest possible loss of negative quality. The more speed we demand from a film and a developer, the greater the price we must pay.
DETERMINING available-light exposures is really not as tricky or as complicated as it sometimes appears to be. The two things that will help you most are a thorough understanding of your film-and-developer combination and confidence in the film-speed index that goes with them.
BECAUSE available-light photographers go about making pictures at filmspeed indexes many times greater than the ratings so modestly published by the film manufacturers, many people automatically assume that available-light negatives must be given overor “forced” development.
THE available-light man’s equipment is basically the same as any other photographer’s. He needs a camera, a lens, an exposure meter, a film, and a developer. Which camera, lens, etc., is completely a matter for personal evaluation and will depend upon such things as what the photographer is going to tackle, the amount of money he’s willing to invest, the kind of pictures and the kind of photographic quality he wants, and so on.
Here's how Weegee makes and uses it on camera and enlarger
Weegee’s kaleidoscope attachment can transform an everyday world into weird and beautiful patterns. It can be fitted over the lens of your still camera, movie camera, or enlarger. (For specific information on movies see page 102.) You can make it in minutes by converting a dime-store kaleidoscope, or go a bit further and make one all by yourself.
PROFESSIONAL use of bounce flash lighting with black-and-white films has long been popular among amateurs. But bounce flash with color has been confined to professionals and professional equipment. Like many enthusiastic amateurs, I wanted to know how to achieve professional results with limited amateur equipment.
The picture was to be used in a national advertising campaign for the steel makers. After picking the right site for the picture, d’Arazien and Stryker found themselves faced with difficult lighting, exposure, and production problems. This picture could not be made with a simple time exposure.
WOULDN’T YOU BE surprised to find that your camera has a feature you’ve never used? Well, if you’re an average owner of an expensive or medium-priced camera, it’s probably true. Maybe you even realize that you have a depth-of-field scale; maybe you know in a general way what it’s for.
A report on Kodak's ingenious approach to flexible contrast
Wide range of contrasts from extra hard to normal can be produced from one negative on same grade of Medalist enlarging paper.
Normal negative makes good prints on all four grades of Medalist paper
DESPITE THE REMARKABLE PROGRESS that has been made in sensitized materials during the past 20 years, there is still no single printing paper that can meet all the requirements of the critical photographic worker. Making one grade of paper do the work of two or three; withstanding the effects of rubbing on hot concentrated developer in local areas; forcing development for outlandish periods without fog or stain—these are some of the more com♦mon requirements.
RARE and fortunate is the photographer who finds opportunity to look back over a long career, reevaluate it, and then print what he believes are his finest pictures. Thanks to the generosity of an anonymous donor, just such a chance came to Edward Weston, the 68-year-old rebel, innovator, teacher, and “omnivorous seeker” whose monumental career spans half a century and profoundly influenced the growth of photography as an art.
IAM NOT a technician and have no interest in technique for its own sake. If my technique is adequate to present my seeing then I need nothing more.” So wrote photographer Edward Weston in 1947. Deceptive words, those. Deceptively simple like much of Weston’s art.
MOST OF US have a secret (or not so secret) ambition—we want to make money with photography. Besides the advantage of extra income, it is gratifying to know that our work is so good that people are willing to pay for it. are willing to pay I he idea of becoming a spare-time professional therefore has a strong appeal, and a good start in that direction is with home portraiture.
1955 U.S. CAMERA Annual, 20th Anniversary Edition, edited by Tom Maloney, published by U. S. Camera Publishing Corp., New York, N. Y. Cloth bound, 81/2 x I 1/4, 316 pages, $6.95. With its 1955 edition, U. S. CAMERA annual celebrates its twentieth anniversary.
In the quiet of the darkroom, the sudden signal of a timer sometimes is startling, particularly if its tone normally is loud. A more subdued sound can be provided by muffling the bell. It’s an easy matter to remove the back of the timer, apply adhesive tape carefully to the bell until the desired modulation is achieved, then replace the back.
VISTASCOPE has placed widescreen motion-picture making within the reach of most amateur photographers' pocketbooks-$75 for the 8-mm anamorphic lens, and $125 for the 16-mm lens. After being used on a camera to make pictures, the same lens is placed on a projector to show the films.
Transition effects can be obtained with simple movie cameras
FADE-IN and fade-out techniques give motion pictures transition and pacing. However, since many 8and 16-mm amateur motion-picture cameras do not have built-in mechanisms that will do this work, the photographer has to turn to devices outside his camera.
THE kaleidoscope attachment can be used on 8and 16-mm motion picture cameras as well as still cameras. In fact, according to Weegee, the same 6-inchlong attachment (2-inch diameter) can be used for movie and still cameras. (For instructions on how to make the attachment see page 80.)
LIFE MAGAZINE, along with the PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA, has announced a $10,000 essay contest for amateur photographers. Prizes of $5,000, $2,500, and $1,000 will be awarded to winning entries which may be black-and-white prints or color transparencies and must be accompanied by captions and text in the style of Life.
IF YOU ARE under the impression that a lot of photographic equipment and experience are required in order to turn out good low-key pictures, this article may surprise you. Because you will find that by following the step-by-step instructions given here, even a beginner can make striking low-key studies.
IT HAS BEEN SAID that Paris is a woman’s town—London, a man’s town. New Orleans, then, can be said to be a photographer’s town. From the glittering crescent of the Mississippi River, through the narrow streets of the old French Quarter, uptown to the mosscovered oaks of Audubon Park, downtown to Chahnette Battlefield where Andrew Jackson’s troops stopped the British in 1815 . . . there is a profusion of picture possibilities everywhere.
Voigtlander's new version of this rapid-action 35-mm camera is now equipped with a built-in light meter calibrated in "light values" for use with its revolutionary Synchro-Compur shutter
ANOTHER STEP in the gradual process of simplifying exposure methods was introduced with the announcement of the new model of the Voigtlander Vitessa camera made in Braunschweig, Germany. The Vitessa, available here in various versions of the "standard” model for several years, now is equipped not only with the new Synchro-Compur shutter first introduced in the new Rolleiflex Automat (PHOTOGRAPHY, August, 1954), but also with a built-in light meter which is calibrated in the "light value” numbers upon which the lens-stop, shuttersetting coupling depends.
STEREO REALIST “35” Models A and B cameras are the most recent products of Realist Inc., 31.5 W. Court St., Milwaukee 12, Wis. Both have automatic film transport and shutter cocking, by 90degree, one - flip thumb lever, permitting the taking of 10 shots in as many seconds. Both have a depthof-fleld scale covering all apertures visible from top; double - exposure control; automatic exposure counter: focusing by knurled ring, and many other features including Steinheil Cassar ƒ/2.8 lenses, Model B has a lens of greater focal length and shutter with M.X. V. synchronization, higher maximum shutter speed, and delayed-action release. It also has a coupled rangefinder utilizing the same window as the viewfinder. Prices, respectively, are $39.95 and $69.95.
FLEXAMETER, a combination rangeand view finder, gives reflex focusing to most 35-mm cameras. Made of aluminum, it has a 50-mm f/2.S lens, with distance scale marked in feet; a lx×1½-in. ground glass finder with a built-in magnifier for critical focusing; and fits most cameras having a standard mounting shoe. Distributed in the east by Studiophot Corp., 2063 E. 4th St., Cleveland, Ohio, and in the west by the Miller Outcalt Co., 1050 N. Lillian Way, Hollywood 38, Cal. Price is $10.95; leather case $2.95.
MICROFLEX Microscope Attachment, for Nikon and other 35-mm cameras, is announced by Nikon Inc., 277 Fifth Ave., New York City 16. It fits all standard microscope tubes, has a 45 - degree prism reflecting image into ocular tube, and built-in shutter has speeds from 1 sec to 1/200, Time and Bulb. An optional fine-grain viewing screen permits simultaneous viewing by several persons, while the viewingfocusing ocular accurately delineates the picture field. Price is $108 for device alone, and $145 with viewing screen, 5x magnifier, and 3 optically-flat contrast filters.
Alpa 35-mm camera
VAREXTAN is a bellows attachment for close-up work with the Alpa 35-mm camera, an importation of Karl Heitz, Inc., 150 W. 54th St., New York City, 19. It has a milled rail 10 in. long which carries two sliders, one of which is movable by hand, the other operable by rack-andpinion for fine adjustment. The connecting leather bellows carries removable lens boards with bayonet mount, one for all Alpa lenses, the other fitting into the Alpa camera. Price is $79.50.
TOWER “3-D” OUTFIT
TOWER “3-D” OUTFIT is announced by Sears Roebuck and Co., Chicago. It consists of two specially adapted box cameras attached to a mounting bar. a stereopticon viewer, two rolls of 127 film, paper cement, 24 mounting cards, and an alignment sheet. The twin cameras’ lenses are spaced about the same distance apart as the human eye and their respective images are merged in the viewer to create the three-dimensional effect. An instruction booklet describes all processing steps. Price is $17.50. For additional information see this month's “Stereo Today” department.
EXPLORER is a new camera introduced by Bolsey Corp. of America. 118 E. 25th St., New York City 10. Film transport and counter and the shutter - cocking mechanism are operated by a single motion of a lever. Maximum shutter speed is 1/200 sec and the lens is a Steinbeil Cassar 45-mm with a maximum aperture of f/2.8. Price, with case and flashgun, is $47.95.
NIKOR TELEPHOTO LENS
NIKOR TELEPHOTO LENS of new design is announced by its importer, Nikon, Inc.. 277 Fifth Ave., New York City. The lens has a focal length of 105 mm and the unusual speed of ƒ/2.5, with a magnification by more than 200 percent that of the 35-mm lenses of normal 50-mm focal length. It has click stops and a depth-of-field scale and the focusing range is from 3½ ft to infinity. Price is $152.50, with matching lens-hood/ filter holder, designed for standard Series VII. filters.
ELITAR SOLIGOR telephoto and wideangle lenses comprise a new pair offered for 8-mm cameras by Interstate Photo Supply Corp., 28 W. 22nd St., New York City. The telephoto is an ƒ/2.5, 1½-in. and the wide-angle an ƒ/2.5, 7-mm. The pair, in a plushlined case, costs $56.90.
INTERSTATE PHOTO SUPPLY CORP., 28 W. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y., announces an addition to the Elitar-Soligor line of movie lenses. It is an f/1.5 lens in a focusing mount with a normal focus of 1 in. for 16-mm cameras. Price is $54.95, and a catalog of the complete line is available.
WOLLENSAK SUNSHADE and Filter Adapter has been designed by Wollensak Optical Co., Rochester 4, N. Y., for use on Graphic-type cameras. It features quick diaphragm setting and easy change of filters, and the hood need not be removed to set the diaphragm. Lens stops appear on the top of the sunshade and remain on top when it is rotated, while shutter speeds remain readily accessible. Price is $10.
-AMP;LT;prism:industry-AMP;GT;REVERE CAMERA CO.-AMP;LT;/prism:industry-AMP;GT;, 320 E. 21st St., Chicago 16, Ill., announces an automatic 35mm blower-cooled slide projector, the Revere 888. The slide carrier centers the film plane of each slide, accepting Bantam slides with full illumination coverage. A function knob controls duration of the automatic time cycle and each slide positions, fades in and out and returns automatically in sequence to the magazine. Tunnel is tilted 15 degrees to prevent slide spillage when loading Some features are: projects single frame views from stereo slides; screen inside of cover for table-top projection; 5-in. Wollen sak f/3.5 lens in a synchronized shutter built into the lens barrel. Illumination is supplied by a 500 watt lamp. Tt can take a remote control cord, electronic timer or adapter for tape recorder synchronization Weight is 13 lbs.; price is $119.50, additional trays $1.49 each.
THRIFTY TABLE SCREEN
THRIFTY TABLE SCREEN is available in three sizes. 18×24, 24×24, and 22×30. Tautness of projecting surface is effected by a few turns of a stretcher bar, which held by two metal clips when not in use, the fabric rolling into a grooved channel on the base, which has a swivel support. The new screen is a product of Radiant Mfg. Corp., 2627 W. Roosevelt Road, Chicago 6. Prices, respectively, are $4.50, $5, and $5.50.
COLORAMA is a new screen made by Aurora Industries, 413 W. Erie St., Chicago 10. It has a rigid flat silver surface, Radiant’s new fabric roller, and “Rollok,” with a special stretching device. “Leg-Lock” construction permits swinging open the legs at the touch of a toe. Prices are: 40×40, $32.95; 50×50, $39.95; 30×40, $31.95; 37×50, $37.95. Write Aurora’s advertising department for a 4-page brochure with full information on its products, plus useful projection and size charts.
VIEWPAQUE, announced by Viewlex, Inc., 35-01 Queens Blvd., Long Island City 1, N. Y., is an attachment which transforms any Viewlex slide and film-strip projector into a lowcost opaque projector. It projects opaque objects in full-screen size and costs $14.95 from your local dealer. Aperture is 2×2".
SUNFLECTOR, a one-piece reflector with permanently placed flash tube, is a part of current Super Sun-Lite speedflash models made by Hershey Mfg. Co., 2425 W. Lawrence Ave., Chicago 25. The reflector is said to increase guide numbers by 25 percent: i.e., for color they are 35-50 and for black-andwhite 150-300. The one-piece unit is smaller than earlier reflectors and is unconditionally guaranteed. Price is $19.50.
ELECTRONIC FLASH UNIT
ELECTRONIC FLASH UNIT named “Reporter I“ is announced by Interstate Photo Supply Co., 28 W. 22nd St., New York City. It has a 225 watt-sec output and a color guide number of 80, a flash duration of 1/750 sec, and a maximum recyclingtime of 10 sec. The storage battery is a Willard ER-6-4B, with a built-in charger. Weight is 9½ lb and a-c operating voltages are 110, 127, 160, 220, and 240. Price with carrying case and battery is $194.50; booster is $79.50; photo-electric cell accessory is $24.95, and extension lamp and modeling light cost, respectively, $44.50 and $3.95.
photoelectric exposure meter
PRIZE RECORD is the name of a new photoelectric exposure meter. Designed for pinpoint accuracy, it is claimed to be easy to set and fast to read. Removal from case is not necessary when taking direct readings, and it can be used for reflectedor incident - light readings. Price, with case, is $18.95 and more information is available from Interstate Photo Supply Corp., 28 W. 22nd St., New York, N. Y.
BRAUN RAPID FILM DRYER
BRAUN RAPID FILM DRYER has been developed by Braun Laboratories, 206 S. Hutchinson St., Philadelphia 7, Pa. It is claimed to dry film in three minutes without any stain, curl, shrinkage, frill, or reticulation, regardless of film speed or thickness. Prices are $1.50 a pint and $9 a gallon.
“MATCHED CHEMICALS," for use in automatic roll-paper processing machines, is announced by Ansco. For information, write Kenneth S. Johnson, Director, Ansco News Bureau, 175 Clinton St., Binghamton, N. Y.
RONDINAX 35 U
RONDINAX 35 U is a daylight-loading tank for developing 35-mm film. Holding seven ounces of liquid, it features a built-in thermometer for temperature control and a frame counter in conjunction with a built-in knife which cuts off the portion of film to be processed. A product of Karl Heitz, Inc., 150 W. 54th St., New York 19, N. Y., the price is $24.
SOLAR 10-PAK supplements Solar Photo Products’ 8-Pak line of flash bulbs. 10-Pak consists of 10 lamp sleeves of either SF, Press 25, 25B, or 25C bulbs (single-lamp prices—SF, 14c; Press 25, 13c; 25B, 17c; 25C, 17c), while the 8-Pak includes SM, 5’s, 5A, 5B, 11, 11B, 22, or 22B. A 12-Palc also has been added. Solar’s guarantee replaces any defective bulb with two new ones. Information on the complete Solar line is available from Solar at 1123 Broadway, New York City 10.
CORD'-N-REEL Is an extension-cord reel with a central built-in outlet Into which the lighting or other appliance is plugged after the desired footage of cord has been reeled off. The cord meanwhile remains connected to the house-current, out let, through the at tachment plug per manently attached to its free end. Prices are: 25-ft model, #18 heavy rubber-covered cable, $3.95; same, 50-ft cord, $5.95; 50-ft #16 cable, $7.95. Cord’-N-Reel is made by Racine Specialty Co., 1309 State St., Racine, Wis.
BETTER SNAPSHOTS OF YOUR CHILDREN is the title of a new Eastman Kodak booklet prepared for the beginner and featuring a group of sample snapshots, with each of which is listed the number of the page describing how to make the same type of picture. In addition to filmtype recommendations, lighting, camera settings, etc., each picturetaking situation is clarified by a drawing showing camera position and direction of light in relation to subject. The 37-page booklet costs 35 cents at your Kodak dealer’s.
CAMERA CENTERING SHOE
CAMERA CENTERING SHOE of low cost has been introduced by Mayfair Mfg. Co., 89 Grand St., Brooklyn 11, N. Y. It is an adjustable device that clamps onto the base of 35-mm cameras, permitting them to be installed on tripod, copying stand, etc. It fits more than thirty different still cameras and some movie cameras; is priced at $2.95.
KAM-LOK is a two-piece unit for attaching any still or cine camera to a tripod. One section remains attached to camera and the other to tripod and the sections are joined to effect quick attachment without lost motion. Price is $2.98. Importer is General Photographic Supply Co., 13 6 Charles St., Boston, Mass.
POWELL 8 - mm CINE FILM
POWELL 8 - mm CINE FILM Processing Tank is a daylight - loading developing tank for the home - movie maker. It features a transparent, perforated, 8-in. plastic reel with a spiral groove into which film is wound easily and quickly right from the camera spool. Film windings are separated to prevent damage to emulsion and allow full contact with processing solutions. Film is left on reel when exposed to light for image reversal and drying. Tank holds about ¾ qt. of solution. A product of the Powell Engineering Co., 11 W. State St., Pasadena, Cal., price is $19.50.
GLASS-WICK is a silicone-base lens cleaner. Rubbed over the lens surface and polished with a soft cloth, it leaves an invisible coating claimed to give day -long protection against fogging, soiling, and scratches. A product of the Glass-Wick Co., 1701 Pitkin Ave., Brooklyn 12, N. Y., the price is 50 cents.
ESSEN KAY Kodachrome Film Adapter makes standard 2×2 slides on 828 film. Fitting many cameras using 120 roll film, the price is $4.95. It is a product of Burke & James, Inc., 321 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 4, Ill.
AUTOPOD called “Triangle J Junior” was designed for 35-mm and smaller cameras and supplements the Senior Autopod made by Jewett Mfg. Co., 201 Del Mar Place, San Gabriel, California. It is made of anodized aluminum and fits into any automobile, from which it permits the taking of pictures through the windshield, even when the car is in motion. Junior Autopod is priced at $24.50. including complete instructions for installing in any car.—
•Conducted according to the recommended practices of the Photographic Society of America. 63rd International Salon of Photography, Toronto Camera Club, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ronto Camera Club, Toronto, 19th Rochester InternaHonal Salon of Phofography*, Rochester, New York.
Traveling Salons are made up of selected prize-winning prints from POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY’S International Picture Contests. Salons are supplied to clubs, stores, schools and other organizations open to the general public, for exhibit.