PHOTOGRAPHERS are the most travel-minded people in the world. They are always planning to snap some remote scenic spot they have heard about, or to photograph interesting people and their activities in other parts of the country. With spring in the air, this long-range picture planning has reached the stage of mapping out vacation trips.
M. D., Skowhegan, Me. I want to take snapshots of movies on the screen in our local theater. What shutter speed will be best? Also, would it help any to get fairly close to the screen and use synchronized flash? ANSWER: First of all, you should have a lens which will open up to at least ƒ 4.5.
Dear Sir: Permit me to congratulate you on the most excellent article, "Correct Exposure," that appeared in the April issue of your magazine. ... I hope you will continue with "dividends" of this character. . . . WALTER M. MITCHELL Westfield, X. J.
Clever use of backlighting is demonstrated in this flash picture. The photographer placed his main light source directly behind the subject to get a silhouette effect. A second bulb, in reflector, was fired near the camera to fill in the shadows.
Want something new in photo fare? This veteran tells how to make the most of any region you may visit.
THERE are hundreds of thousands of fine pictures waiting to be taken right here in the United States. Every section of the country—North, South, East, or West—offers its own particular type of colorful subject matter. Choose any territory you want to visit this summer, cover its best features with your camera, and good pictures will be your reward.
A new bill provides that you can be sentenced to a year in jail for taking unauthorized naval photographs.
IN these times Americans are finding it necessary to make many sacrifices. We are engaged in a great defense program. We must expect that some restrictions will be placed on normal activities. This is particularly true of photography.
Magazines today feature a new variety of pictorial journalism, based on telling the whole story in pictures. It calls for skill in handling people and cameras.
IT was in the autopsy room of the Minneapolis General Hospital. Before me, stretched upon the gray marble, was a body over which men in white were working. Just two small lights beat down upon them. It was an effective scene, and I was busy recording it with my camera when the telephone interrupted with a call for me.
The waterfront takes on a new aspect when the sun sets. For fine pictures, try time exposures of boats after dark.
AFTER the sun goes down you have a new world in which to take pictures. Every lighted shop window, every industrial plant, the railroad yards, and the docks at the waterfront—all these settings take on an entirely different appearance after dark.
This is the story of the first photographs of an American city in a blackout, taken by news cameramen utilizing invisible light.
NEWS photographers get so they don’t bat an eye at any assignment, however weird it may sound. Nevertheless, cameramen of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer were rocked back on their heels by a recent order— to cover a practice blackout of their city without ttsing any light.
Taking pictures from the Rio Grande to Cape Horn is not only fun—it will help strengthen hemisphere defense.
IF you own a camera, are reasonably good at using it, and like to travel, Uncle Sam has use for your talents. Don’t get excited—this doesn’t mean active duty, or anything like that. So don’t kiss the girls good-bye. All your Uncle Sam wants, for the moment, is your cooperation in a little venture connected in a general way with the defense program.
IT was the camera which helped to establish Yellowstone Park. Now, many decades later, it's still the camera which attracts people to Yellowstone. But in a different way. They come not only to enjoy scenic beauty but to photograph it. At least two-thirds of Yellowstone's annual half-million visitors take their cameras with them.
The only special equipment needed for making murals is this combination tray and paper holder. You can build it yourself.
SOONER or later, every photographer is bitten by the mural bug. When it happens to you, don’t be alarmed. It won’t cost much, you’re bound to have a lot of fun, and you can make fine prints to decorate the walls of your home. The only special equipment required is an oversize easel to hold the paper, and a tray big enough for developing it.
You don't have to visit the woods for wild-life subjects. There is lots of "game" near your own home.
HUGH S. DAVIS
WANT to get some animal pictures? There’s plenty of “game” within the limits of your own city. You can find real wild-life subjects that live under your neighbor’s house, in your own attic, or maybe in an old rock fence, a hollow tree, or among the flowers and shrubs of your yard and garden.
A good portrait expresses the character of a subject. Learn to analyze people before taking their pictures.
IN creating exciting pictorial portraits one of the main points is to photograph the unusual or arresting elements of your subject’s character. You must do this in such a way that anybody who looks at your prints will see at a glance what interested you when you took the picture.
Instead of photographing flowers in the garden, arrange them in your home. Complete control of light and setting will give you good pictures.
J. HIXON KINSELLA
THE flowers in your garden are fine still-life material. You can get good pictures by photographing them just as they are. But if you would like to get some shots that will make your friends exclaim—photographers and flower lovers alike—make attractive flower arrangements and take pictures of them in your own home.
The right title can make an average photograph stand out; the wrong one can spoil a top-notch picture. Here's how to choose suitable titles.
CHOOSING appropriate titles for your pictures is nearly as important as making up good prints. That word or two carefully written on the mount can make or break the average salon photograph. If the title is selected with the same care that goes into making the print, it will help put the point of the picture across.
GIVE children something to do if you wcmt natural pictures of them. William Suschitzky of London carefully posed these two young subjects and then waited to trip his shutter when their play produced the desired expression.
TAKING unusual shots is all in the day's work for the news cameraman. Here are winners from the Sixth Annual Exhibit of the Press Photographers' Association of New York. (For Technical Data see page 82)
THERE is drama in the flying spray thrown up as waves break against the shore. Your camera will catch it if you use a fast shutter speed and employ a dark foreground figure for contrast, or use a deep sky as background. (For Technical Data see page 82)
THE feeling of being locked indoors is expressed in both these photographs by Doris E. Wright of Middleboro, Mass. She shot through windows to show life going on as usual outside while both her subjects were confined indoors. (For Technical Data see page 82)
WHEN the circus comes to town there are plenty of fine pictures awaiting you. These were snapped by Robert W. Freeberg, Chicago, an amateur who asked a few troupers to pose before the show. (For Technical Data see page 82)
THE photographer's eye must be as good as the player's to shoot pictures timed as well as these. John Martillin of Chicago, Ill. caught the spinning pins above; Harold Corsini of New York, N. Y. photographed the pool players. (For Technical Data see page 82)
EARLY morning and sunset are fine times to take pictures on the water. The sun is low, and if you are lucky enough to catch it shining through a light mist you can get photographs like these. (For Technical Data see page 82)
AN accident rarely improves a picture, but this one did. Emanuel Hoschander of New York used warm water to rinse his negative. Reticulation began at once. The gelatin softened and expanded unevenly, hardening in the hypo to form this strange pattern.
You'll get good results with any popular color process if you standardize. By following this carbro routine you’re bound to get brilliant color prints.
ERNEST W. KESTNER
ANY amateur can produce color prints of top quality without a big outlay of cash and a room full of equipment. Regardless of which of the recognized color processes you use, the secret of success is to develop a standardized working schedule.
The “sloping” which spoils many otherwise good shots can be straightened out in enlarging by tilting the easel, the lens, or the negative.
IT is extremely difficult to hold an ordinary hand camera exactly true for linear perfection in every shot. As a matter of fact, no hand camera with fixed back and front can possibly record on the negative any variety of linear designs without some distortion appearing.
A good scenario will keep you from missing many important and colorful sequences. Well-rounded travel movies are always planned.
CLYDE DE VINNA
NOW that summer’s practically here, you amateur movie makers are thinking about that swell footage you’ll shoot on the cruise, during the motor trip, or out at the lake. If you’ve really lined things up systematically your plans should pay off nicely.
The author, whose revolutionary technique in Orson Welles' new picture created a sensation, tells how he startled moviedom.
THERE’S been a good deal of gratifying discussion recently about the photography of Orson Welles’ first movie, Citizen Kane. The gist of the talk has been that the cinematography in that film was "daring" and "advanced," and that I violated all the photographic commandments and conventions in shooting the picture.
The efficiency of any amateur trimming board will be vastly improved by the gadgets suggested here.
WALTER E. BURTON
FEW pieces of darkroom equipment are more useful than a good trimming board. And by making three or four simple improvements, the photographer can extend his trimmer’s usefulness many times. Take, for instance, the matter of knife action.
Open flash was used by Walter Masson of Boston, Mass., for this picture. It was taken at f 16 on Superpan Press with a Popular Pressman camera at a distance of 6 feet. Robert Scott of Saltsburg, Pa., took this photograph in bright shade with a 2¼ x 3¼ lhagee filmpack camera.
FEATURING A one-piece basket and a deep enameled tray, the new Solvay AirDryette Jr. unit is designed to use calcium chloride as a dehydrating agent where too much moisture or humidity is encountered. Standing only 12" high, the unit is well adapted to small darkrooms, and will hold 10 lbs. of calcium chloride.
H. B. M. Columbus. Ga.—Your medium yellow filter produced a fine sky background for this shot. There is but one disturbing element—the subject appears to be leaning out of the picture. It is impossible to tell from viewing your print whether she was actually leaning against something, or whether she was standing upright and the camera was tilted.
WHEN printing up filmpack negatives of groups, clubs, teams, and other subjects on which there are likely to be orders for a number of copies, it is very economical to number the pictures by exposing the numbers that are already on the filmpack negatives.
CLOSEUPS in indoor shooting create a difficult problem in backgrounds. When a full shot is taken, the background is bound to make sense even if it is clutDistracting details which make a closeup shot less interesting (left) can be avoided by using a simple, home-made background. tered up with some confusing detail. But the background of an amateur’s close shot often shows small portions of pieces of furniture and other articles not readily identifiable.
A LARGE scrapbook, obtainable at any stationery store for 25 cents or less, makes an ideal titling device. Put your titles on its pages, and film them as you turn through the book. As the pages are of the looseleaf variety, sheets of waxed paper, colored cellophane, or tissue paper can be inserted between them to cover each of the titles.
IF the finder of your movie camera is not etched for the field of view a telephoto lens will cover, and you use a telephoto quite frequently, you can easily put cross hairs on your own finder to aid in centering images. Glue two fine hairs or silk threads across the front element of the finder lens, as shown in the accompanying illustration, so that it is bisected by each.
WIDESPREAD comment among amateur photographers has resulted from the announcement of Ivan Dmitri’s camera tour to Jasper National Park. Dmitri will act as guide and advisor for members of the tour, which he is conducting under the auspices of POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY.
WHEN tinting photographs, it often is necessary to leave small portions uncolored in the middle of a large area, such as a sea gull or church spire in a large expanse of blue sky. Simply coat the small area with rubber cement to protect it from the color. When the tinting is done, the cement can be peeled off by rubbing with the thumb.—William Swallow, Brooklyn, N. Y.
OCCASIONS frequently arise, nowadays especially, when you want to obtain a facsimile of your birth certificate or some other document for record purposes. To do this quickly and inexpensively, with the least amount of trouble, sometimes is a problem.
MANY developers become exhausted with use, and it is important to keep track of just how many rolls of film have been developed in them. I keep my finegrain solution until 12 rolls have been developed and then discard it and mix up a fresh batch.
THE news photographer is the poorest judge of his own work. He has to be urged, cajoled, and finally given a “must” order to get him to exhibit his pictures in a photographic contest. The newspapers and syndicates encourage exhibiting for the reflected glory derived from having their men win awards.
With the coming of spring, several clubs have gathered together the best work turned out in members’ darkrooms during the winter months, and are ready to book their traveling exhibits. Other organizations are anxious to receive such shows, and still others are desirous of exchanging salons.
USERS of roll-film cameras occasionally want to develop a few exposures before the entire roll is used up. This procedure need not be difficult. Take your camera into the darkroom, remove the back, take out the takeup spool, and cut the film just above the last exposure which has been made.
Glen Fishback, Sacramento, Calif., took this fine picture with a 5x7 Agfa Universal View camera and 6" Zeiss Dagor ƒ 9 lens. Exposure was made on Agfa Triple S Pan by open flash, using two No. 21 Photoflash lamps. One light was placed behind the subject, the other near the camera, both being fired simultaneously.
YOU can build up a fine collection of filters without spending a lot of money. Make them yourself, mounting inexpensive gelatin sheets in cardboard frames. As far as taking pictures is concerned, these plain gelatin sheets will do as good a job as the most expensive filters you can buy.
KEEP your slide collection in good order, and it will give you a lot more satisfaction. Your audiences get more enjoyment out of shows that run smoothly, without such absurdities as an occasional upside-down screen image or a shot that has strayed in from an entirely different group.
A NEW camera-microscope which takes pictures with an "electric lens" now makes it possible to photograph bacteria magnified 25,000 times. The device opens up a whole new world to photomicrography. The limit of the best microscopes employing glass lenses is about 2,500 times magnification.
IT is simply impatience which makes some of us waste endless hours and numerous sheets of salon-size paper in foolish attempts to secure perfect results without, adequate preparation. The painter makes preliminary sketches before starting work on his big canvas, and the airplane designer tries out small scale models before building the real plane.
CERTAIN types of illustration photographs, as well as self-portraits, require that the photographer or his hands be included in the picture. Not all cameras are equipped with delayed-action shutters or devices, and in such cases you can make the picture by leaving the lens open and turning the lights on for a short time exposure.
REGARDLESS of what make or type your vertical enlarger may be, if you’ll house it in a booth the darkroom will be a better place to work in. It’s a simple matter to devise such a booth, and once the enlarger is installed in it all stray light will be shut off from the rest of the room, where sensitized materials may be placed as you work.
WHEN making a number of enlargements you’ll find it faster to work the prints through the solution in pairs, putting them back to back. In this way two prints will stick together when wet. Two prints can be developed in this manner if they have been exposed to come up in the same length of time.
YOU don’t have to be a clock watcher to make good prints. You can time your exposures by ear, using an alarm clock as an audible timer. This will leave your eyes free for any necessary manipulations under the enlarger. The device is inexpensive — the cheapest alarm clocks tick the loudest, which makes them best for darkroom use.
CAMERA fans throughout the country have been enthusiastic in their reception of the Second POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Traveling Salon, which is now being exhibited. There are 100 excellent black-and-white prints and four color prints in the collection.
HERE is a rack for developing cut film and filmpacks by tray. It is easy to make and eliminates the danger of negatives becoming scratched as they slide over one another. Any size tray can be used, depending on the size of your negatives. If you use 4x5 film, you can develop four sheets at once in an 8x10 tray without fear of scratches.
YOU don’t need an expensive tool to make plate-sunk mounts for your photographs. Simply obtain a toy top at any toy or candy store, and it will do the job equally well. Select one with a smooth, rounded metal tip that will not damage the mount. Then place a sheet of heavy capdboard of the required size under the mount, and press evenly around its edges with the top.
I USE my delayed-action device to attract the attention of dogs and other pets which I happen to be photographing. The buzzing sound brings an eager (and frequently comical) expression to the animal’s face, and makes him prick up his ears.
When it comes to winning photographic contests, Roy Pinney of Brooklyn, N. Y., probably is the luckiest photographer on record. He started out by taking first prize, black-and-white, in the 1940 POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Picture Contest. Then he won second prize in the First National Flash Photography Contest, sponsored jointly by POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY and the manufacturers of flash equipment.
HAVING tried various time-honored methods for removing dust and lint from lenses, and found them somewhat slow, I hit upon the idea of using a piece of amber. I rub the amber on the sleeve of my coat (if your coat isn’t handy, use any woolen or silk material), and while the amber holds the static charge thus generated I use it as a magnet.
Use of Filmholder in Making Negative from Transparency
IN making black-and-white negatives from Kodachromes, by projection, I use my double cut-film holders as easels. One side of each holder is loaded with white paper for focusing, the other side being loaded with film. After focusing on the white paper, I flop the holder over and expose the negative.
SOLUTIONS FOR YOUR PHOTOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS, by J. Victor Mansfield, Ph.D. Published by Mansfield Photo Research Institute. Board cover, spiral bound, 5½X8, 120 pages, illustrated, $2.00. Presenting a new departure in photographic books, this volume contains a series of 29 basic experiments designed to make the amateur photographer efficient in photographic processing and darkroom technique.
THE GROCER’S DIGEST magazine, 904 Merchandise Mart, Chicago, Ill., is in the market for photographs of independent retail food stores showing outstanding product displays, attractive window displays, and unusual accommodations offered by retail grocers to their trade.