WE promised you a surprise in this issue of POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY and we are surprising not only you but also ourselves. POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY is giving $1,600 in cash prizes, and manufacturers and distributors of equipment have cooperated with us to the extent of furnishing a long list of valuable prizes.
Written especially for POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY, the following survey of progress during the 20th Century was prepared by Dr. Mees from his paper read to The Royal Photographic Society commemorating the Centenary of Photography.
C. E.KENNETH MEES
THE year 1901 is a suitable date for the beginning of a history of the modern era in photography. The technical methods of photography used at that time depended upon the use of gelatin dry plates, mostly of the blue-sensitive type, without any dye sensitizing, although a certain proportion of so-called orthochromatic plates sensitized with erythrosine were in general use.
Presented herewith is a chapter from the author's forthcoming book which soon will be published under the above title. This chapter is one of twenty-four, each analyzing in detail the making of a certain picture.
CHARLES E. KERLEE
THIS photograph was made for a national women’s magazine. It was used to illustrate a story on Hollywood standards for women’s figures. The photograph was planned to appeal to a specialized, sophisticated market, to attract attention, and to show the subject’s figure.
Try humorous holiday snapshots as greetings instead of the commonplace colored postcards.
FROM now until the end of summer we will all be bombarded with the usual run of souvenir postcards from vacationing friends. They're all alike —a large blob of brilliant blue water, overhanging silver birches, a few impossible-looking clouds, and other ornamental fluff.
A special technique, easily acquired, is necessary if you are to get the most out of your cloud pictures. The author outlines an effective method.
E. R. AUGUSTIN
CLOUDS are a photographic challenge to any amateur. Pictorially, they can give life and beauty to an otherwise drab landscape. In themselves, they offer an infinite variety of ever-changing compositional motifs. For the amateur this field of photography offers two important advantages.
Composition is the keystone of successful landscapes. A master gives you practical suggestions with which to better your work.
FRED R. ARCHER
LANDSCAPE photography, next to snapshooting babies and friends, is perhaps the most common type of camera work coming from amateurs—and with appalling results. The amateur usually points his camera at the view before him and takes in half of all he can see.
A Hollywood still man outlines the special requirements and problems that enter into photography of the full figure. Average amateur equipment is all that is needed.
PORTRAITURE is more than making pictures of faces. Although head is commonly associated with portrait, a portrait can be a photograph, drawing, or other form of representation of the entire figure or any part of it. The literal meaning of the word, in fact, is likeness and the dictionary does not limit portraiture to any special portion of the whole likeness.
You will be amazed to learn of the painstaking workmanship that lies behind the seemingly simple pieces of glass which make picture-taking possible.
WALTER E. BURTON
ON THE bank of the Genesee River in Rochester, N. Y., is a factory where workmen spend nearly a year making a glass filled clay pot big enough to hide a candid cameraman in; and then a man comes along and smashes it to bits with a sledge hammer! That’s just one of the unusual incidents in the life history of a camera lens, for the story behind the magic eye of your camera is one that is full of surprises.
The chief of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's still department tells you how to use your own synchronized "sunlight" in either bright or cloudy weather.
CLARENCE SINCLAIR BULL
WE can refute Mark Twain’s statement about the weather very easily nowadays. You will remember that he said nobody seemed to do much about it, for all the talk. But things are being done about the weather every day, gray or sunny, by photographers who have learned what flashbulbs can do.
The pigmenting process and the making of prints by transfer are described in this second and concluding installment by a noted authority on bromoil work.
SWABBING WHILE RESOAKING
RETOUCHING AND SPOTTING
DRYING AND MOUNTING
PREPARATIONS FOR TRANSFER
HERMAN H. SCHERRER
As mentioned in the first instalment of this series, the routine of bromoil work consists of making a negative and a print having the peculiar qualities desirable in this process, and in converting the print into a matrix from which the final bromoil is evolved or the transfer printed.
Second-hand photo equipment can provide you with pleasure when you know how to go about buying it. Much of the guesswork can be eliminated by following the sound advice presented herewith.
MANY an amateur turns to the used bargain lists to find the camera he wants at a price within the range of his pocketbook. A good used camera will give service nearly equal to that rendered by a new model, at a saving of from 30 to 70% of the original list price.
Easily and quickly loaded, even in total darkness, this home-made outfit is inexpensive and durable as well. Its simple construction makes it readily available to all.
CHARLES C. GERMANN
THERE is no longer any doubt among amateurs generally that the tank method of development is safe, economical, and very convenient. And when you know the characteristics of your favorite film and developer you are able to exercise a great amount of control in producing negatives by time and temperature.
By devoting some attention to the finer points of "daylight" roll film processing you can avoid a lot of waste and annoyance. Here are some useful hints.
GEORGE R. KARFIOL
THE usual instructions for the development of roll films by the tank method, while satisfactory as far as they go, do not seem to be any guarantee against many costly little mistakes which may be made by the beginner. The suggestions contained in this article may help you to avoid some of the waste which accompanies the trial and error method.
A former official ship's photographer tells you what to take and how to take it; the things you must do and those you must avoid when shooting on a cruise.
T. H. MILLER
TAKE a last angle shot up toward the waving shipboard crowd and ascend the gangplank. Then grab a downward angle shot of your friends waving goodbye from the dock. The steamer begins to ease into the channel. Its whistle booms a deep, throbbing farewell.
It’s a simple matter to add third dimension to your snapshots. Try making some stereos if you want to experience a new thrill from your hobby.
WILLIAM L. HUNTER
REMEMBER way back when grandad used to let us look at his set of stereoscopic pictures? What a thrill we got out of seeing those views in third dimension—persons standing on the edge of the Grand Canyon or at the brink of Niagara Falls, scenes from some world’s fair, nature studies! What shudders went through us as the realities of space were unfolded by that simple stereoscopic viewing device.
EVERYWHERE are alert news photographers who are recording the happenings of our times. Today their pictures are news—tomorrow they will help to interpret history. Three examples of excellent photography and good reporting are shown on this page.
One of the leaders in the fight against this unwanted legislation addresses an urgent message to every amateur.
THOU shalt not! Liberty-loving man still has an almost boundless awe when these words are uttered in the solemn tones of the State. In Arizona, Florida, Tennessee, Hawaii, and Georgia, professional photographers have succeeded in having the equivalent of these words written into laws regulating photography.
The mask-like beauty of this daring profile portrait is the result of an idea, carefully executed. Munkácsi stopped his lens far down to achieve roundness and fine skin de-detail which characterize this picture. [Courtesy HARPER'S BAZAAR. For Technical Data see Page 72]
BOYS will be boys, whether in New England or Sweden, and their adventures and childish fun are a delightful source of unusual pictures. Good exposure helped to hold details of facial expression in these shots, balancing harsh sunlight.
TAKEN before authorities of the New York World's Fair decided that the use of tripods is taboo, these brilliant night shots by H. S. Ulan of Mt. Vernon, N. Y., show the photographers' paradise from rarely seen and amazing new angles. (For Technical Data see page 72
SHOOTING for shadow detail in the face to capture expression forces you to sacrifice tone and definition in other parts of your subject, but this compromise may help you to get pictures full of human interest.
FROM monumental figures to playful creations sculpture challenges the photographer to show the weight of great masses and plastic roundness. Both pictures on this page, unusual in subject and approach, have successfully solved their problems.
ACTION and originality are the keynotes of successful pictures on the beach. Remie Lohse of New York City gives you here a few pointers in his informal photos, three of which have been used in national advertising.
IN striking pictures interest centers on just one subject. Photographer Gehr illustrates this in his close-up of hands, while photographer Hadding was led by the same idea in framing his main figure with the hands of the world's largest clock.
LIGHT of the setting sun was utilized to make two widely different pictures, both filled with the tranquil atmosphere of dusk. Amateurs should be impressed by the fact that the close-up conveys its theme just as well as does the general view in the long shot.
IF it weren't for the diagram, you would never figure out how Herschel H. Brauer of La Salle, III., made this intriguing shot of golf balls. We thought you might want to know, for your own purposes. So here it is.
Excessive contrast in summer landscapes can be avoided by the use of filters, and control during developing and printing.
EXPERTS tell us that an extremely contrasty subject can contain a comparative range of tones in the ratio of 1 to 500; that a film negative or positive of that subject can possess a tonal range from 1 to 128; that a sheet of glossy paper will reflect a range of 1 to 25 or 1 to 30, matte surfaces reducing the potential reflection to about 1 to 16. And when reproduced by means of engraving and printing the tonal range is still less.
No matter where or how you travel, movies of your outing will give you Increased pleasure when you plan them along the lines suggested In this story.
ORMAL I. SPRUNGMAN
IF ever there is a time when 8 and 16 mm movie cameras can show versatility, it’s when their owners pack bags and strike out for distant corners. And it doesn’t make much difference whether you trek into Greenland, fly down to Bermuda, cruise the North Cape, chase lions in deepest Africa, or just plain motor over to Eagle Bend.
OVER $3700 PRIZES IN POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY PICTURE CONTEST
CLOSING DATE SEPTEMBER 15,1939
RULES OF CONTEST
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY announces the biggest Picture Contest ever conducted by any photographic magazine. We are offering an imposing array of cash prizes and photographic equipment to reward the makers of good pictures. Anybody can compete in this contest and any picture is eligible, whether black-and-white or color, "straight" or retouched.
The contrast of seemingly unimportant elements of a picture can enhance or utterly spoil its composition.
FEW bigwigs in photography “can take it.” When they develop a name they want to be safe from criticism so their fame can endure forever. They don’t welcome even the slightest unfavorable discussion of their work. So one is taken aback when a celebrity like Dr. D. J. Ruzicka, F.R.P.S., hands the analyst a print with the statement, “Take it to pieces, and don’t be too tender.”
You can control the way in which different hues register in your color shots if you'll follow the author's method.
W. NORWOOD BRISANCE
A REVOLUTION has come in photography, and tomorrow is apt to see black-and-white pictures becoming practically obsolete. The amateur may choose from Agfacolor and Finlay plates, Dufaycolor, and Kodachrome. And those who look to the future have been getting in on the ground floor, learning as much as possible about color photography.
Capable of doing a thorough washing job with remarkable speed, this device will save you a lot of trouble and guesswork.
For the Outside Frame
For Water Inlet
For Tray Frame
IT has often been said that if a task is worth doing at all it is worth doing well. And washing prints is no exception. We all know that if a photo is to retain its brilliance and lustre permanently without fading or turning yellow it must be freed of all traces of the fixing solution by washing in clean water.
Careful use of the technique described here will give a professional touch to your films.
WHETHER or not he does it consciously, the average amateur movie taker varies the distance between camera and subject many times during the shooting of a reel of film. If every sequence were taken from a uniform distance the resulting film would be more than a little monotonous.
CALCULATED to meet the most exacting demands of modern picture-takers, the new Weston “Master” exposure meter embodies many innovations. Officially known as Model 715, the new model boasts increased sensitivity, more accurate readability, a sharply directional viewing angle for use under intense light, and an increased number of exposure values.
The service rendered on this page is free to our readers. Send your prints with technical data to POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY, 608 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, III. We regret that we cannot criticize prints by mail, nor can we return prints submitted to this department.
A. G., Detroit, Mich.—Interest is added to an outdoor silhouette when it is superimposed upon a striking background of backlighted clouds in the manner you helped you to capture the dramatic quality of the clouds.
N. S. K., New York, N. Y. Having once read in POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY an article on making your own filters from colored cellophane, I am attempting to do this. How can I tell what filter factors to use with the various colors? ANSWER: While you can probably guess the approximate exposure to use with each of your home-made filters, the safest and surest method is to make negatives, giving perhaps three exposures with each filter (using different factors, of course), and choosing the one which most nearly shows the amount of correction to be expected.
Dear Sir: While I enjoyed reading your article on shooting the circus, I think it only fair to your readers to warn them that cameras are not allowed in the big show, Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey, as 1 had the experience of being stopped at the entrance and told that I could not take a shot and that they destroy the film and fine anyone caught trying to sneak a shot from the stands.
A monthly list of valuable kinks and hints for the amateur. POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY will pay $3.00 for each one accepted.
A Pliable Stirring Rod
Milk Shaker Spotlight
A Handy Magnifier for Reflex Cameras
Soft Focus Contact Prints
Panorama Tripod Attachment
For Cooler Darkrooms
Removing Pinhole Spots
Wire Aids Slow Funnel
OCCASIONALLY when solutions are being mixed some of the chemicals have an annoying way of sticking to the sides and the bottom of the receptacle. It’s very simple to make a stirring rod which will overcome this nuisance. Place a short length of rubber tubing over the end of a stirring rod.
RECENTLY announced by Willoughbys is the new Willoette Enlarger which will accommodate any size negative from 2¼× 3¼" down to 35 mm. Protection against overheating the negative is assured by perfect ventilation. A 30" column permits an enlargement of 12 diameters to be made on the 17 × 21" baseboard with a 2" lens.
Movie Fans in Northwest Invited to Join Organization
More for Your List
Salons Ready for Booking
Fans Meet Regularly for Tours
Club Exhibits Wanted
Enlisted Men in Service Form Canal Zone Club
Milford Holds Club "Runs"
Three More Councils Get Under Way
We Hear . . .
Amateur motion picture enthusiasts residing in the northwesterly section of the country will be interested to learn of the formation of the Northwest Cinema League. The rather nominal membership fee of $5 per year entitles members to a comprehensive list of advantages, including the use of private projection rooms and editing rooms, fully equipped; the use of 8 and 16 mm cameras and projectors ; lighting setups and studio facilities; a film library; a club library consisting of photographic books and periodicals ; and group instruction in the fundamentals and advanced principles of cinematography.
Martin Munkacsi made the excellent portrait of Katharine Hepburn in his studio with an 8×10 Eastman view camera and 12 cm Cooke lens. The exposure was ½ second at ƒ 28 on Eastman Portrait Pan film. The photograph by Doris E. Wright was made late on an August day with a 3¼× 4¼ Graflex camera and ƒ 4.5 Eastman Anastigmat lens.
MANY amateur users of 35 mm film hesitate to attempt loading their own cartridges with bulk film on account of the difficulty experienced in handling the film and winding the proper number of turns on the spools, and at the same time keeping the emulsion surface free from finger marks and scratches.
HOW many of your projection prints are consigned to the waste-basket because of over-or underexposure, or incorrect development? No matter how carefully you work, or how many test strips you use, occasionally a print will turn out just a bit too light or too dark, in which case it is unfit for album, salon, or any other purpose.
MANY times an amateur may wish to make enlargements of a greater size than usual. I recently wanted to make a print 20 × 24 inches in size, and had to improvise trays big enough for the purpose. Taking a wooden curtain stretcher we have around the house, I adjusted it so as to form two squares approximately 30 inches on each side.
FOR years I did all my copying by the method commonly used, employing artificial lights. The time consumed in this process, and the difficulties presented by setting up lights properly, avoiding reflections from the subject matter, and obtaining uniform lighting led me to try copying by sunlight.
MANY owners of box cameras find that after a day at the beach the cameras are all but ruined from sand which gets into the unprotected lens opening in the front of the box. A clean cork may be inserted therein firmly but gently, and will protect the interior of the camera from sand, water, dust, etc.
A CELLOPHANE container for a strip of four 35 mm negatives can be obtained free of charge from your jeweler. These cellophane bags are used for wrapping wrist watch bracelets, and are thrown away after the bracelet or strap is removed from the card and sold.
UNLESS you are confronted with an extremely dense negative you had better avoid using a Photoflood lamp in the enlarger. This extremely powerful light will tend to destroy detail and fine gradations of tone in your prints. Use a weaker light, even though it may require a somewhat longer exposure time.
THE amateur who has not used a tilting tripod top has in store a real pleasure. Such a device enables him to use the camera at any angle easily, and without the danger and annoyance of tipping the tripod. The illustration shows a substantial and simple tilt top, and one that is easily made.
THE acetic acid shortstop bath used by many people in processing prints may easily lose its efficacy without your realizing it. A few drops of phenolphthalein solution added to the shortstop will tell you when the bath is too weak for further use by turning a light pink color.
THIS handy film agitator saves you the trouble of manipulating it by hand. You can turn the fan on and forget it until the developing time is up. The agitator also speeds up the development of your film, decreasing the developing time from 15 to 20 percent.
FOUNDED several years ago as an outcome of the need for expert illustrative activity in the field of scientific research and teaching, the Biological Photographic Association will hold its annual convention Sept. 14-16, at the Mellon Institute for Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa.
TO facilitate splicing 8 and 16 mm film use a couple of spring type wooden clothespins. Trim down and sandpaper the inside of the clothespins so that they have flat surfaces which make perfect contact with each other. In use, make your splice in the regular way. Then as soon as the initial set has taken place and the sprocket holes are lined up correctly, remove from the splicer and apply one of the prepared clothespins. Leave the clothespin clamp on until the next splice is made and then remove.
ON some types of enlargers it is difficult to read the diaphragm settings of the lens under the darkroom lights. A flashlight of the fountain pen type will overcome the difficulty. Simply use a piece of red cellophane over the bulb to make it safe for use in enlarging.
EVERY photographer should have a camels’ hair brush handy for dusting lenses, etc. A good way to keep the brush free from dust and grease is to make a case from an old lipstick holder. Remove all traces of lipstick from the case. Light a candle and fill the base where the lipstick originally was with drops of tallow. While the wax is still warm insert the bristles from any camels’ hair brush. Hold in place until the tallow is firm.
PHOTOGRAPHY AS A HOBBY, by Fred B. Barton. Published by Harper & Brothers. Cloth bound, 5½×8¾ 144 pages, illustrated, $2.00. A book designed for the beginner with his first camera as well as the occasional snapshot-taker, to serve as a guide in taking worthwhile pictures.
HERE’S one way to be sure the water used to wash films is at the correct temperature. Fill a large dishpan or similar receptacle with water of the desired temperature and syphon the water from here into the film tank with a rubber tube. An ordinary spring closepin can be used to control the flow of water through the tube.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY, 608 S. Dearborn St.. Chicago, III. A "free for all” photographic content for black-and-white pictures and color pictures. Prizes amounting to more than $3.700.00 in cash and valuable photographic merchandise.