EVEN though winter is in the offing and light conditions are becoming generally poorer, you should not dream of putting your camera in the mothballs. For there is plenty that you can do with your camera in fall and winter, regardless of whether it sports an ƒ 1.5 lens or is but a humble box.
The famous illustrator reveals, in an exclusive nterview, his secrets of photographing beauty. He gives the amateur valuable advice.
"WHEN you begin this beautiful-lady camera business, the first thing to realize is that you can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear, photographically speaking,” Ruzzie Green said. “If you want to make a glamor photograph, you’ve got to find a real glamor girl,” he continued.
"Photograph worthwhile subjects," Roy E. Stryker, head of one of the photographic departments of the government, suggests. Amateurs should wake up to see and record contemporary life in their pictures.
PHOTOGRAPHY IS a way of looking at everyday life,” said Roy E. Stryker who is in charge of the Photographic Unit of the Farm Security Administration of the Department of Agriculture. “Tabletop pictures and lovely studies of white swans are all right in their place,” he continued.
Troublesome reflections often can be avoided in your photographs. The author explains how a polarizing filter on your camera lens will eliminate those objectionable light rays.
JOHN EDWARD WILCOX
HOW many times have you tried to take a photograph of a store window or some object behind glass only to find, upon developing the negative, that an otherwise perfect shot was spoiled by annoying reflections present on the surface of the glass?
AN AMATEUR snapshot is frequently a disappointment, due to the fact that it embodies too much superfluous detail in the background. Often these unwanted details attract more attention than the center of interest for which the picture was taken.
AFTER trying several methods of printing black borders on my enlargements I finally hit upon a way to do it and get borders of even width all around. When enlarging I mask the edges of the projection paper as if for an ordinary white-bordered print.
Adam Archinal, the oldest nationally known camera repairman, outlines the most common camera troubles and their cures, giving valuable hints for the care of your camera.
ADAM ARCHINAL has mended more than 100,000 cameras of all makes in the past forty-four years. Nearly all manufacturers send him their tough repair jobs. The Camera Doctor can peer into your instrument, diagnose its troubles, and give orders for its repair to one of the white-aproned craftsmen in his shops in New York City more quickly than you or I could load our box with film.
The pictures shown on this page are prime examples of sneak photography. Where news photography is concerned, there may be occasional justification. But the amateur has been confusing sneak photography with candid photography. Snapping pictures of people who do not wish to be photographed is an invasion of their privacy and justly calls down their wrath on you.
Your hobby can help your business and pay you dividends if you design effective photographic business cards.
WITH a little originality and effort, your camera can supply you with calling cards that are much more outstanding and interesting than the usual printed variety. The actual work of making the card can be done readily in the home; or part of it done in the home and, for those not familiar with copying, developing, and printing, these latter processes can be done by commercial photo finishers.
MANY times I wished for a large printing frame for making paper negatives, gum prints, and the like. The cost of such a frame being considerably more than I could afford, I built my own as illustrated. The frame was not difficult to make, and has proven to be one of the handiest accessories in my photographic work.
A STUDY of Figure 1 will show an easily made device to help the 8 mm. filmer. It is a U-shaped covering for the finder of the camera. You no doubt have had trouble with the sun shining into the rear element of the finder. And then too you can see what is happening on either side of the front lens frame.
The author, an expert at his trade, renders a few valuable tips to photo-minded air travelers. It is not difficult to bring back to earth the scenic delights of travel by air.
E. H. PICKERING
ANY amateur photographer should be able to take good aerial photographs from the window of a transport plane. Snapping such pictures is a lot simpler than most of the ground shots amateurs make. Yet flying camera fans who comprise at least one-third of all passengers on airlines do not seem to get as good results as they could be expected to produce.
Shortly before his recent death, Max Factor wrote this article for POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY. It constitutes his last word on the art that made him famous.
THE application of makeup has been practiced by portrait photographers for the past ten years. Nevertheless, makeup in portrait photography is a relatively new art. In my conversations with photographers in Hollywood, who have used makeup in connection with their portrait work in private studios, I find that all have come to the conclusion that makeup is absolutely indispensable in portrait photography for many and varied reasons, two of which are outstanding.
THE usual method of intensifying negatives is by the use of a chemical bath. Unfortunately one seldom has the chemicals on hand just at the time he needs them. Having been caught in this predicament several times, I evolved a satisfactory method of intensification which dispenses with the usual chemical treatment and in many ways is more effective and offers more control over the result.
The photographing of miniature groups on a tabletop offers the amateur endless variety of subjects for indoor pictures.
MALCOLM H. BISSELL
ONE of the most amusing fields of photography, limited only by one’s imagination and ingenuity, is that of photographing miniature groups on a tabletop. The “props” for this type of work need not be elaborate, ranging from simple, odd little figures and scenes manufactured from bits of wire bent to simulate people, animals, and scenery, up to the more involved sets using dolls and toys.
The amateur can learn much about composition from a careful examination of his negatives. Frequently a single negative contains many pictures. In this instance the author obtained seven pictures from one.
JANET L. MURRAY
MOST pictures are in reality a combination of several pictures. By cutting up an original photograph into parts, you will be surprised to find how many different pictures you can make from it. Just as an experiment, I dug out an old negative and took a poll among my photominded friends as to how many pictures there were in it.
The men who Take publicity photographs for the great broadcasting networks must have kaleidoscopic minds ever producing new ideas. The author tells how Ray Lee Jackson, NBC's chief cameraman, turns out his striking pictures of radio artists.
THERE is one photographic studio in New York where no one is ever photographed except by special invitation. If you’re as young and charming as Shirley Temple and as rich as Rockefeller, you still can’t get Ray Lee Jackson to photograph you unless he himself extends the invitation.
Armed with a camera that cost $7.50, this adventurous girl set forth around the world. It paid her way to strange lands.
HONOLULU . . . Tokyo ...Peiping . . . Manila . . . Singapore . . . Bombay . . . Cairo . . . Paris! Their names echoed like temple bells in my mind, demanding that I listen to their call. And finally I asked myself: “What’s the use of living a century without feeling the thrill of a tropical wind ... of seeing the Southern Cross in all its glory ... of knowing what an author means when he talks about Bubbling Well Road in Shanghai, or the Ginza in Tokyo . . . and of being on the flying bridge on a dreamy tropical midnight, somewhere between Singapore and Egypt—with the stars just out of reach?”
THE glamor and haughty magnificence which pictures of tall buildings sometimes suggest are not lodged in the buildings themselves but rather in the line composition that underlies the picture. Now I have the great pleasure to show a picture of skyscrapers, by Edward Steichen, which possesses more glamor and magnificence than any picture of tall buildings I have ever seen.
Print quality can be materially improved by removing spots and scratchmarks from your prints with the aid of inexpensive and easily handled retouching materials.
H. M. STEINBURG
THE quality of prints can often be materially improved by simple retouching on the print itself. The little blemishes—spots and fine lines— which appear on the print surface seem almost unavoidable. Imperfections in the film, scratches, minute flecks of dust on the negative, scarcely noticeable especially on miniature negatives, are enlarged during the projection process until they often seem to leap at you from the print.
MANY camera owners belong to camera clubs which have periodic showings of members’ prints at the clubrooms. Most amateurs, after composing and printing their negatives as carefully as possible, hang their prints in these exhibitions.
An amateur introduces a developer which may be used at almost any temperature, showing no grain at 30 diameters.
Whitfield D. Hillyer
BIG pictures of good quality, produced with the least possible fuss and with minimum grain, are the goal of most serious miniature users today. That goal is being approached rapidly—and one of the longest strides toward it is the subject of this article.
Posed pictures of your pets are actually easier to take than unposed shots. But they require patience and guile.
SO you sneaked up on Puss with that new camera, that humdinger, with the highspeed shutter, automatic focus, and big sassy lens. All set to stop action, by heck! And Puss did her stuff, leaping and bounding after catnip mice, scampering here and there, at various angles.
Photographing China and Glassware in a Commercial Studio
THE building and photographing of still-life setups is often more difficult than one realizes on seeing the finished results. Much work and ingenuity on the part of the photographer are required. The two setups shown here were arranged and photographed by Tesla Wineman Barker of Chicago, for Montgomery Ward & Co.
It is a simple matter to get good indoor portraits with inexpensive equipment if you learn the efficient use of an ordinary handflash to give your subject a pleasing lighting.
YOU may not possess an expensive camera, a synchronized speedgun or any other piece of fancy lighting equipment. But if you do own a reasonably good camera, a tripod, and a handflash reflector, this article is aimed right at you. And at every other amateur or free lance who is trying to get along with a good inexpensive outfit.
The action of your camera lens need no longer be a mystery. The author shows you how, with the aid of a smoke chamber, you can actually see it form an image.
WALTER E. BURTON
THE yogi dispels mysteries by gazing into his crystal ball and seeing things that remain invisible to other eyes. You can go him one better with the aid of a magic box that will do much to clear up one of the most widespread of photographic mysteries by showing exactly how a lens works.
Your darkroom need not be a black dungeon. If your "safelights" are safe, you can make darkroom work pleasant and easy by painting the walls white instead of the traditional, gloomy black.
JOHN EDWIN HOGG
A WHITE darkroom! It may sound as loony as a pink elephant but it isn’t. It is a reality that I created for myself by ceasing to pay tribute to superstition and tramping all over a sacred tradition that has bedeviled photographers long enough.
Sweeping curves, much sought in composition for their dramatic effect, presented themselves to Kirby Kean atop the Boulder Dam. They were cleverly accentuated by the photographer who shot them at a moment when deep black shadows paralleled the curves.
"Our daily bread" can be photographed in countless ways. Ernö Vadas of Budapest illustrates this idea with a long shot of harvesters while the closeup of cutting bread conveys it just as graphically. The photographer of the latter remains unknown — he unfortunately failed to put his name on the print.
Pictorial effects are frequently obtained by gigantic enlargements of familiar objects. Fred Korth of Chicago reveals an interesting pattern in skin. Paul C. Kirsch of Jersey City gets amazing expression in a huge eye.
Some may argue that photography is not art. But when you come across such charming pictures as these by Herman A. Scherrer of Indianapolis, Ind., you may have to revise your theory. For these prints have all the atmosphere of etchings, strong individuality, and are miles apart from record photography.
Classical dance and the Lindy Hop call for different photographic techniques. Ferenz Fedor of Albuquerque, N. M., posed his dancers carefully outdoors. Max J. Futterman of New York City used speedflash to stop the ecstatic action of swing.
Here's a versatile floodlight, suitable for any type of indoor photography, and easy to build.
RALPH E. KNOWLES
THE coming of winter is usually accompanied by an increased interest in indoor photography. Amateurs who are about to experience their first venture in work with artificial light and want to enjoy the economy of homebuilt equipment will find here a description of a lighting unit that has proven adequate for any type of indoor picture.
1. In a fresh fixing bath, at 65 degrees F., prinfs should not fix less than: Fifteen minutes. Forty minutes. Eighty minutes. 2. If you wished to record on pan film miles of rugged mountain scenery partly obscured by haze, you could make your lens "see” farther by using in front of if a:
PETZVAL'S PORTRAIT LENSPETZVAL’S LENS CONSISTED OF FOUR LENSES IN TWO COMBINATIONS - THE FRONT COMBINATION CONSISTED OF A POSITIVE LENS OF CROWN GLASS CEMENTED TO A NEGATIVE LENS OF FLINT GLASS-THE REAR COMBINATION CONSISTED OF TWO LENSES,THE NEGATIVE BEING OF FLINT AND THE POSITIVE OF CROWN GLASS.
THE Inter-Club Competition, sponsored by the Manhattan Camera Club of New York City, has been enthusiastically supported by camera clubs throughout the country. As an added incentive, and as a means of expressing our approval of this splendid undertaking by the Manhattan Club, POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY is awarding a handsome trophy, for permanent possession, to the Camera Club receiving the highest score for three months (not necessarily consecutive).
THE old saying, "Cleanliness is next to godliness,” is a valuable axiom for the photographer, amateur or professional, to follow. Have you ever entered a darkroom where the floors were littered with cigarettes, splashed with hypo and developer, and cluttered with odds and ends?
R. E. P., South Norwalk, Conn.—You seem to have placed your camera at the correct low angle in snapping this picture of the spaniel. The dog’s position and expression are good. too. It is unfortunate, however, that the door frame extends down into the top of the picture, since the dark mass tends to crowd the composition downward and is otherwise distracting.
G. D. B.. Chico, Calif. I have read about films having been hypersensitized. Can you tell me of a way of doing this? ANSWERS: The easiest and the most effective method of hypersensitization is the DerschDuerr process. discovered by two Agfa chemists.
Dear Sir: Your article in the September issue on Dufayeolor positive transparencies was fine. Now give us air instructive article on howto make colored prints (photographically) from the positive transparencies. E. A. CHAMBERLAIN, Detroit, Michigan.
ONE of the most exasperating problems I had to overcome was the tendency of glossy prints to curl. Slow emulsions suitable for thin negatives were especially troublesome. All the amateur printstraightening devices were tried but none proved practical until I hit upon the following relatively simple method.
SEVERAL kinds of small flash bulbs are now on the market. Their size allows more to be carried in less space, but because they are small they do not fit many of the reflectors that were designed for use with the larger lamps. Tins can be remedied by using an extender or socket adapter as shown in the illustration.
A NEW 35 mm. camera reCently announced is the Zephyr Candid Camera, with focal plane shutter. speeds from 1/25 to 1/500 Sec., Wollonsak ƒ 3.5 len s ( $22.50) or f 2.9 lenS ($29.50). both of which stop down to ƒ 16. The camera has a hard aluminum alloy case leather coverd and brushed aluminum trimmings.
The Metropolitan Camera Club Council. Inc., of New York City, is fast becoming more than just an affiliation of clubs. Sunday bus trips are being held. fare $1.50 each. On these sabbath trips, the Council states, "comparatively little time will be devoted to traveling. The emphasis will be on picture taking."
Kirby Kean’s splendid picture of Boulder Dam was taken with a 3¼ x 4¼ Auto Grafiex and Zeiss Tessar ƒ 6.3 lens. The exposure was 1/50 second at ƒ 8 with a Wratten A (red) filter, on Eastman Super Sensitive film. Kean took this photograph of the Dam from the Arizona side.
MACHINE DEVELOPMENT Automatic film development or processing by maehin. One company uses a photoelectric cell to govern one phase of processing: the cell actually achieves the effect of adding light if film was under-exposed, and vice-versa.
HEAVY cameras on light tripods, or enlargers with slender posts, are apt to vibrate—and when such oscillation occurs, the money you spent on that highgrade anastigmat becomes money thrown away. The test for this is so easy that no one should neglect to use it on any doubtful apparatus.
AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHS by Walker Evans. Published by The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Cloth bound, 7¾x 8¾, 200 pages, 87 plates, $2.50. Through a series of photographs which vividly, yet honestly, portray the moral and economic aspect of America, Walker Evans has made a valuable contribution to the visual records of our contemporary civilization.
Getting Maximum Efficiency from a Focal Plane Shutter
FOCAL plane shutters of one or another kind are found in increasing numbers on modern cameras, thus making these instruments capable of tackling speeding subjects that with other shutters would be quite out of the question. Efficient as these shutters usually are it is as well to see that they are manipulated in such a way that full use is made of their movement-arresting powers, for they have the rather strange quality of giving different efficiencies depending on how they are worked.
IN most cases when a movie film breaks during projection, the breakage occurs as the film passes through the film gate or immediately afterwards. To take time out for splicing ruins the psychological effect of your carefully edited picture. A temporary repair to circumvent such audience reactions can be done in a moment. Wind up the loose end of the broken film on the lower take-up reel. Then slip a rubber band around it just as you would on a full reel. As soon as this is done start the projector, and as the film starts feeding down grasp the end and guide it into the takeup reel, pressing it against the rubber band.
B. KUPPENHEIMER & Co., INC., Chicago, III. Prizes, $100, $75, $50, $25, five of $10, and 21 of $5. Subject, cats or kittens of any kind in poses suitable for advertising. Closing date for entries December 15th, 1938. Kntry blanks obtainable from the store which sells Kuppenheimer clothes in your town.
MONOCHROME monocles are fine in their place, which is not always in the eye. Held over the viewing lens of any twin lens reflex camera they give a clearly defined monochrome image on the groundglass. An ordinary green filter (such as the Wratten X-1) in a mount to fit the viewing lens passes enough light to show detail in average shadows and gives an excellent “one-color” rendition on the groundglass.
WITH limitations of space and electrical outlets, many of us suffer from not enough light or too many trailing wires in our darkrooms. Here’s an idea that can be nicely utilized for darkroom purposes. A stout copper wire or cable is stretched between two strong screw eyes, which are fastened securely to the walls above either end of the work bench.
IN MAKING projection prints it is usually a simple matter to eliminate halation caused by lights or windows by dodging and local control. In making contact prints, however, many workers have found that it is sometimes impossible to give a light area its proper value without getting the rest of the print too dark.
THE inconvenience of measuring a 10% potassium bromide solution drop by drop for addition to stock developer when used for bromide paper, prompted the use of a popular hand lotion dispenser. This device was introduced to the public some time ago in a nation-wide advertising campaign and is procurable at most drug stores.
AN old fashioned flat-iron makes a valuable and inexpensive accessory for the amateur photographer’s workshop. For the benefit of younger camera enthusiasts, your grandmother used a flatiron made of cast iron with an iron handle permanently attached to it.
These are the correct answers to the Photo-Quiz on Page 54 of this issue. 1. Fifteen minutes of fixing in a fresh bath is sufficient for prints. 2. Red filters cut haze. See article on filfers in the June issue. 3. Pyro, in reference to developers, is an abbreviation of Pyrogallol. 4. Hypo settles to the bottom of the washing tank and can be drained off quickly.
THE wise amateur photographer who is out for needle-sharp pictures will have already adopted the camera handle for freehand shots. A further improvement, which still more reduces the possibilities of camera shake is illustrated in the drawing.
SEVERAL months ago while loading my bakelite developing tank I accidentally dropped it. It landed on its edge, and a broken lip and crack along the side rendered it useless for the moment. I was able to build up the broken portion of the lip with plastic wood, aided by two small pieces of flexible tin which served to mold the wood to the shape of the lip.
ALL solutions which must be kept airtight can easily be preserved for months in quart soda bottles fitted with rubber tops. These tops sell for 20c per dozen in any five and ten cent store and last for years. Photographers will find that finegrain and other developers will not deteriorate when stored in this manner.
A SURE way of keeping an accurate check on the temperature of the chemicals in your darkroom is to keep a thermometer standing in a bottle of water. Put this in your darkroom with your chemicals. A glance at the thermometer will give you an instant reading of the temperature of all liquid chemicals in the room.
excellent material for cleaning lenses is the Kleenex Lipstick tissue which comes in a cardboard folder similar to paper match packets. Each folder contains 26 tissues and a carton of 12 folders costs only 25 cents. The packets are easy to carry and the tissue is lint free and very soft.
ONE of the most popular 8 mm. movie cameras is equipped with an ƒ 5.6 lens. This, combined with a fairly slow film, has caused many an unwary individual trouble from underexposed films before he learned how much light is needed to get good pictures.
WITH the advent of winter, cold weather hints may not be amiss. Although not usually known, at temperatures considerably below freezing (32° F.) photoelectric cell types of exposure meters often give improper exposure values. This is due to the fact that in dry cold atmosphere the cover glass picks up an electrostatic charge.