PHOTOGRAPHIC ethics seem to be an entirely hazy subject as far as many sellers and buyers of photographs are concerned. Our own frequently sad experiences and numerous letters from our readers compel us to say a word or two on this phase of dealingwith your neighbors.
Few photographs ever contain a laugh. But Will Connell packs them every time with satire, humor, or drama. Here he tells you the secret of his technique.
THE Scene: Studio of Will Connell. The Time: Any old time. The Props: A high silk hat, a pair of silk stockings draped over the back of a chair, a couple of cigarettes slowly burning away in an ash tray, and an empty champagne bottle. The Title: Casting Director, The Result:
No trophy can awaken such happy memories in the hunter and fisherman as pictures taken in camp. The author tells you how to utilize precious picture-taking opportunities.
IF YOU are a hunter or a fisherman, the chances are that you own a camera. Most sportsmen do. Those who don’t are likely to in the near future. There is something about the ownership of guns and rods which inspires a desire to own a camera as well.
Photographing tiny aquatic creatures is an adventure far removed from one's usual camera activities. But it is not difficult, and the bizarre effects achieved more than compensate for the effort you invest.
LYNWOOD M. CHACE
PHOTOGRAPHING human interest is one thing, but photographing strange tiny creatures that live deep in ponds and mires, unobserved by man, is another. Much hard work was involved and many failures resulted before successful pictures were obtained of the strange life of these water creatures that live in a remote little world of their own where the human eye rarely penetrates and where the cruel law of life is “kill or be killed.”
UNUSUAL pictures like those on this page can be obtained by stopping down your lens far to get depth of field, and by learning to see as the camera sees. If you keep an eye on the odd relation of objects caused by perspective distortion — making objects nearest to you appear huge, while those.
Here is a thrilling new application of photography which will permit you to get excellent aerial shots without actually leaving the ground yourself.
A. F. MOOTY
KITE photography—aerial photography utilizing kites—is. an exciting new hobby, one that is apt and worth to win a great number of followers. Few amateurs get a chance to try their skill at aerial photography, and even if they take a few pictures from the air, rarely do they find a plane that is willing to cruise above their homes or any other particular place they wish to photograph.
Costly equipment and a complete studio are not essential to the making of good portraits. The amateur can accomplish much in his own home by merely following a few simple rules.
THE path of the amateur photographer is much smoother today than it was a few decades ago. In the old days he was restricted by the limitations of slow color-blind emulsions and slow lenses. The modern panchromatic emulsions, photoflood bulbs, fast lenses, photoelectric exposure meters, and simplified processing procedure; all things to simplify photography and encourage the amateur were non-existent.
If you are a movie amateur of limited means, remember that a little ingenuity, more than costly gadgets, can go a long way to make your films more presentable.
ORMAL I. SPRUNGMAN
IF YOU HAVE the idea that it is necessary to own elaborate notion picture equipment and numerous accessories in order to secure topnotch amateur films, you are gravely mistaken. Some of the cleverest substandard movies are produced with the simplest equipment.
Concluding the series ot articles on his tamed AbrasionTone process, William Mortensen shows you how to improve the quality ot your prints—whether portrait or landscape—to the point ot absolute pictorial perfection.
THE series two have preceding given articles you the of basic this technique of the Abrasion-Tone process in portraiture. Now we will consider some applications of the process to various pictorial problems. Two specific problems we will consider are:
A commercial photographer reveals a few of the "tricks of the trade" with which you can take "impossible" pictures.
THE photoflash lamp and its synchronized firing mechanism seem to contain a potential revolution beyond the realization of many of us. Newspaper photographers, I believe, were the first to employ the flash in daylight for killing down ugly shadows.
To the photographer children are indeed angels when they sleep. To avoid the difficulties of posing a restless infant, Paul Wall caught the child asleep, then placed the mother beside her baby for an original and effective double portrait of this eternally fascinating subject.
Photographer Daniel Cross of New York City won eight first prizes with his picture of a man sleeping on the steps of a church—an unposed shot, notwithstanding its strong composition . . . Charles Anchie of New York City took the picture of the yawning baby, enlarging his print from a tiny section of a miniature negative.
Good luck and a knowledge of camera angles is claimed by both photographers as the key to the success of these pictures. The proper angle became all-important in getting a printable shot of the nude boy.
By night and by day industry is a fascinating photographic subject. The man behind the lens who learns to see the hidden beauty of industrial design will find an inexhaustible source for dramatic pictures.
Amateur photographers who belong to camera clubs have much to gain from planned group photo-activities.
JOHN H. VONDELL
FAST films, synchronizers, range finders, speedy lenses are all helping to improve photography — but to my mind camera clubs are playing a big part in stepping up the quality of pictures being made by thousands of camera fans. The other day one of our members, who is “getting hung” regularly in salons, told me that since joining the camera club his pictures have improved more than he realized was possible.
"Your pictures must portray real human emotion . . . must cut slices out of life," says Vidtor Keppler. He speaks freely of the technique, by which he realizes his ideal, gives the amateur precious advice.
"PHOTOGRAPHY,” explained Victor Keppler, “is an emotion etched on film. If it’s not that, it’s nothing at all.” The celebrated photographer and I were standing in the corner of his studio in New York. Excitement lay as thick over the Keppler studio as chocolate over a cake.
Photographic evidence has become an important factor in the traffic court and has resulted in increased convictions, and police efficiency.
EVERY traffic investigation radio car of the Los Angeles Police Department is unofficially equipped with a candid camera. These cameras are the private property of the officers using them. They pay for the film used and for the developing and printing.
I MUST admit that I cannot define or measure the quality and beauty of a picture to the satisfaction of every reader. I have no impersonal measuring instruments with which I arrive at a conclusion. All that any critic can do is to say, “I like this picture, therefore I think it is a good one.”
If you have photo amateurs among your friends, a party at which pictures are taken, developed, printed, and judged will be an unforgettable adventure to them.
ELLEN L. THOMAS
AN aged hag with ragged black hood, matted grey hair and lemon-rind teeth ... a glamorous cocktail girl tilting her slender glass ... a witch doctor painted in lurid hues with beaded armlets and a feather duster head-dress. Glimpses of a Hollywood studio?
The originator of the famous finegrain formula, Champlin No. 15, tells about his new and improved developer.
FOR the past eighteen months my Formula No. 15 has been an outstanding finegrain developer, one that combines emulsion speed, fine grain, and tone quality. After that formula was published I continued experimenting because, in this changing world, nothing can be called finished.
THE amateur photographer who has experienced difficulties in appropriating kitchen, bathroom, or clothes closet for darkroom purposes will rejoice in a new process which permits contact printing in an ordinarily lighted room. There is now available a double emulsion paper and flexible printing frame which have been developed by Mayson Tucker, twenty-four year old photo chemist and which eliminate the necessity of a darkroom for making contact prints.
New, fast films, and modern accessories help the "old box" compete successfully with expensive cameras.
Great Variety of Lenses
Troublesome Double Exposures
AUSTIN C. LESCARBOURA
AS AN incurable photographic crank, I would like nothing better than to rush to the nearest photographic dealer and buy a miniature camera with the greatest variety of lenses, gadgets, and films. But the mere matter of dollars and cents compels me, instead, to harbor a suppressed desire.
THE free lance writer of today, turning in an occasional piece of copy for the mechanical, garden, and home magazines, finds a camera his most important aid. The trend in illustrations is toward the photograph rather than the drawing. In the case of actual construction projects described in detail, where a set of working drawings are needed, step photos, that is, photos of necessary steps in the construction, are also important.
Mexico is a land that is teeming with unusual photographic opportunities and rich with vivid color. The new highway has opened up the country for cameras.
HERMAN D. ELLIS
THE moment you cross the Rio Grande into Mexico you are in a foreign country, exciting beyond comparison to the camera fan. The new Pan American highway is a causeway of breath-taking beauty, unreeling scenes that will keep your shutter finger itching constantly.
If you plan to buy or build an enlarger this article will help you to understand more clearly the problems of lenses, illumination, bellows extension, projection distance, and other factors which must be considered.
EVERY camera owner sooner or later comes to realize that in order to get the most out of his good negatives they must be enlarged. He learns to look upon a negative and contact print, not as the final stage in the photographic process, but simply as a means of obtaining a worthwhile picture.
AGOOD 10" print trimmer can be made from household odds and ends at surprisingly little cost. It will be found invaluable for trimming photo prints or for cutting enlarging paper to smaller sizes without waste. The blade I used was made from an old power hack saw blade I got for nothing from a machine shop.
The scope of your photographic opportunities may be extended by the use of little known screens and filters. The author tells you how and where to employ them for best results.
KARL A. BARLEBEN,
EVERY camera owner knows about the usual run-of-the-mill filters such as the yellows, reds, blues, and greens. But how many are aware of special filters, more generally known as effect filters? The more commonly used color filters are of greater general value than effect filters, but the latter play an interesting part in the creation of unusual pictures.
Press photographers were handed a tough problem when they were assigned to cover John Warde's suicide leap. Here's the story of how they accomplished the job.
THE suicide of John Warde at New York's Hotel Gotham recently dropped one of the year’s most bizarre picture stories right into the laps of news photographers. Just before noon on sultry July 26th came the flash that a maniac was poised precariously on a 17-story ledge, threatening to jump if anyone came near him.
"Fades" and "wipes" need not necessarily be photographed on the film. Here are a few hints on how to add them mechanically.
WHEN cutting and rearranging your movie film, have you ever thought that it might be greatly improved by a fade, a wipe, or some other cinematic device used as a transition between scenes or sequences? If these have not been photographed in the beginning, you might feel that there is no way to add them.
WITH an increasing number of amateurs processing their own movie film, there is no reason why the movie enthusiast shouldn’t start devising his own workroom accessories just as the still shooters are doing. For a starter here is a collapsible drying drum for movie film, which can be constructed easily for about two dollars.
AVERY efficient reflector for a photoflood lamp can be improvised by glueing bright tinglueing bright foil from a candy bar over half of the lamp itself. Make sure that the foil does not touch the brass base of the bulb. I tried this method as a makeshift on an occasion when I didn’t have a reflector with me, and it proved to be so satisfactory that I haven’t bothered to use a reflector since.
ABOUT a year ago the Park Board of Blair, Ontario, Canada, had a children’s picnic. They thought, rightly, that it would be a good occasion to let loose the camera fan and get both publicity and pictures. At one o'clock the gates were opened and at four I was still wandering around with a Rolleiflex, complete with wide angle lens; a Leica, complete with filters, tripod, exposure meter, and as many small, heavy items in my vest as a hunter’s cartridges.
Order and system are necessary to secure success in any darkroom. The author describes his well-planned laboratory.
MALCOLM H. BISSELL,
THE average amateur photographer builds his darkroom first and discovers his mistakes afterward. Some rooms are too large, others are too small, and still others have not enough space for trays and enlarging apparatus. I found many things wrong with the first darkroom I used, and when I built another I made careful plans to avoid these unpleasant difficulties.
1. The "M. Q." that you see on tubes of developing powder is an abbreviation for: Mix quick. Metol-hydroquinone. Maximum quality. 2. Gamma, when used in photography, refers to: A national fraternity of photographers. The degree of density and contrast in a negative.
THE accompanying illustration shows a little device that I have found very useful in my darkroom. I call it a washmeter. It consists of a strip of wood about 10" long, 2" wide, and about 1" thick. The actual dimensions are not important. Twelve holes are bored in this strip from top to bottom and numbered with India ink from one to twelve.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY, 608 S. Dearborn, Chicago, III. Prizes of $100, $50, $25, and $5, for illustrating photographically a famous bit of American literature set forth in magazine. Closing date for entries Oct. 10, 1938. See September issue.
J. W. H., Evanston, III.—Your flower photograph gives evidence that you approached this subject with some knowledge of how to go about it. For one thing, your low camera angle was good. And placing the light tulips against a dark background was effective.
F. X. O'R., New Orleans. La. My friend's 8 mm. movie camera has a shutter speed of 1/50 sec. at 16 frames per second, while mine, which is of a different make, has a speed of 1/40 sec. What causes this difference? ANSWER: The difference in shutter speeds noted above is probably due to the fact that the two cameras have, different sized openings in the rotary disc shutters.
Dear Sir: In your August issue you have an article entitled The Camera of 1950. In this Harry Champiin states, “The rangefinders will be made to work automatically. This, too, will be a function of the photoelectric coll.” I suppose the photoelectric cell in addition to its many wonders is also psychic.
A monthly list of valuable kinks and hints for the amateur. POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY will pay $3.00 for each one accepted.
Repairing Broken Graduates
Portable Darkroom Light
Film and Blotters Make Screw-Type Bottle Cap Leakproof
A Novel Tilt-Top for The Miniature Camera
Copying Matte Finish Prints
Temperature Control in Printing
Speeding Up the Box Camera
R. D. Elders
M. W. Abbott
Clifton Co wee
H. C. Briesemeister
Georges les Poires
IF the base of your graduate gets chipped or broken so that it will not stand up, don’t discard it. Here is a way to fix it up as good as new. Get a container lid such as the kind that come on ointment jars, tobacco cans, etc., and select one of ample size.
ENLARGEMENTS to generous album size from 35 mm. film (or equivalent sections of negatives up to 4 x 5) can be marie with littie effort by means of tiie new F e d e r a 1 Model No. 835 — Automatic Fixed Focus Enlarger. The film is placed in the open view negative carrier, the switch pressed, and a 3½ x 5 enlarged image is clearly vi s i h l e on the groundglass plate.
WHEN the Olympian, crack transcontinental passenger train plunged through a flood-weakened trestle not long ago, among the passengers was Warren Jones, member of the Shorewood Camera Club of Milwaukee, Wis. Jones’ car was among those which were not derailed, and he used his camera extensively before boarding the rescue train.
This excellent photograph by Paul Wall was planned before taking. In order to get a variety of camera and light angles, the bed was moved to a larger room. The three month old baby slept peacefully through the commotion, while the mother posed.
LEAD CHROMATE. PbCrO4. A powder employed as a coloring matter for certain darkroom fabrics. DEAD INTENSIFIER. An intensifier giving extreme density; it is rarely used except in cases where unusually high densities are required. LEAD NITRATE. Pb(NO,):.
ANEW film-speed sheet containing the latest ratings on some of the newer films has just been issued by Weston Electrical Instrument Corp. The sheet also includes revisions, made as a result of exhaustive tests on American films and some of foreign make.
THE photographer who must enlarge his miniature negatives with a fullsized enlarger frequently may find that because of mechanical limitations he is unable to project the image to the desired size. By placing a portrait adapter (a special auxiliary lens which is placed on the camera lens to adapt it for closeup work) over his enlarger lens he will have cut down on the necessary working space and enlarged the image. Portrait adapters sell from about fifty cents upward.
DEVELOPER deteriorates rapidly when made up in quantities. Some of us have occasion to use only a small amount at a time and still wish to buy the prepared form that comes in a double can. The following table will be found convenient for making up small portions of the solution.
IN hypersensitizing film with mercury, it is often difficult to find a non-metallic container that is light-proof. The container must be nonmetallic since the mercury vapor reacts chemically on most metals, and the film must remain in the vapor for from 24 hours to a week.
CIGARETTE tins, the so-called “flat fifties,” are quite useful, and the photographer would do well to collect them. For storing negatives and prints they have almost no equal. A label can readily he affixed to the top, concealing the advertising.
APIECE of ordinary cellophane when crushed and restretched in an embroidery hoop serves as an efficient diffuser in printing by projection, or in photographic lighting. Held in front of the enlarger’s lens, either steady or with any directiona1 movement (the amount of diffusion is thus governed) it renders a pleasing soft-focus effect different than the kind achieved when using silk screens, glass diffusers, or what have you.
PHOTOGRAPHERS who buy their hypo and other much used chemicals in bulk, very often have a difficult time weighing large quantities on their small scales. Since the scale pan will hold only about a quarter of a pound at a time, the chemical must be weighed out in such small amounts.
COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS by R. M. Fanstone, A.R.P.S. Published by Camera Craft Publishing Co. Cloth bound, 7¼x4½, 136 pages, color illustrations, $1.50. This volume is written expressly for the beginner in color photography and deals with the subject of natural color films and plates.
I HAVE noticed that many amateurs have difficulty in drying doubleweight glossy prints on ferrotype tins. As a profesisonal I can give them this tip. The drying cannot be hurried or the prints will come off of the tins with ringlike or “oyster shell” marks.
ALMOST all pictures are improved by white borders around the edges. As adjustable border masking devices are rather expensive I made my own by running adhesive tape around the edges of a piece of glass. Glasses of the correct sizes, such as four by five, five by seven, eight by ten, etc., may be obtained from old picture frames.
AGREAT many portrait makers like myself have cameras which focus by scale. Very often they are caught short without a means of measuring the distance from camera to subject, and resort to guessing which usually results in outof-focus pictures.
ALTHOUGH water is cheap, there is no need for the amateur to use great quantities of it every time he washes the little batch of two or three prints he is ever making. The trick is to increase the force of the water by decreasing the size of the outlet.
READERS who are saving the Amateur Movie Film Chart which appeared in the July issue will be interested in the following additions and corrections. Under Gevaert films should be added their 16mm. Negative Panchro Super Sensitive film, an extra fast full-scale pan emulsion supplied in 100 ft. daylight loading rolls, processing extra.
IF you make your contact prints on glossy paper and do not have either a print roller or wash ringer, here’s a good method for removing the excess water from the prints after they are placed on the ferrotype tin. First lay a sheet of white blotter on the tin, then roll over it with an ordinary rolling pin.
THE following rules which have become so axiomatic in the practice of amateur photography will help many a conscientious amateur in pursuing his hobby. 1. Expose for the shadows or those parts of the subject in which you wish to record detail.